Wednesday, July 26, 2017

July 27

  • July 27, 1214
    Philip II of France decisively defeats Emperor Otto IV at battle of Bouvines confirming French conquest of Normandy and other English territories
  • July 27, 1245
    Pope Innocent IV pronounces the deposition of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II at First Council of Lyons
  • July 27, 1299
    The Ottoman Empire is founded by leader Turkic tribe Osman I, who announces the independence of small principality from the Seljuk Sultanate
  • July 27, 1586
    Sir Walter Raleigh returns to England from colony of Virginia with the samples of tobacco
  • July 27, 1663
    British Parliament passes a second Navigation Act, requiring all goods bound for the colonies be sent in British ships from British ports
  • July 27, 1689
    Jacobite Scottish Highlanders defeat royal force at Killiecrankie during Jacobite Rising
  • July 27, 1694
    The Bank of England, one of the oldest central banks in the world, receives a royal charter as a commercial institution to provide war finance to the government
  • July 27, 1789
    President Washington signs a measure establishing the Department of Foreign Affairs, forerunner of the Department of State and the first established executive department
  • July 27, 1794
    French revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre was overthrown and placed under arrest
  • July 27, 1866
    Successful transatlantic telegraph cable, laid by Massachusetts merchant and financier Cyrus West Field, follows an earlier attempt in 1858, allowing transatlantic telegraph communication
  • July 27, 1880
    In the Battle of Maiwand, which ends with British defeat, an Afghan woman named Malalai carries the Afghan flag forward after the soldiers carrying the flag were killed by the British, becoming a heroine for her show of courage
  • July 27, 1890
    Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh fatally shoots himself in Auvers-sur-Oise, France
  • July 27, 1921
    Researchers at the University of Toronto led by biochemist Frederick Banting announce the discovery of the hormone insulin, which enables an effective treatment for diabetes
  • July 27, 1944
    United States regains possession of Guam from Japanese
  • July 27, 1953
    The United Nations Command, the North Korean People's Army, and the Chinese People's Volunteers, signed the Armistice Agreement to end the Korean War and established the Korean Demilitarized Zone, de facto a new border between the two nations
  • July 27, 1954
    The world's first nuclear power plant generates electricity by nuclear power, at Obninsk, Soviet Union
  • July 27, 1976
    In Tangshan, China, a magnitude 7.5 earthquake occurs and becomes, the second greatest earthquake in recorded history, with official casualty figure 255,000 deaths
  • July 27, 1990
    Belarus declares itself sovereign by issuing the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic
  • July 27, 1993
    Cuban athlete Javier Sotomayor makes jump of 2.45 meters and sets new world record in the high jump
  • July 27, 2002
    A Ukrainian Air Force Sukhoi Su-27 fighter crashes at an air show in Ukraine, killing 77 spectators and injuring more than 100 others and becomes the largest air show disaster in history

Tuesday, July 25, 2017

July 26

  • July 26, 657
    Battle of Siffin occurs between Governor of Syria Muawiyah I and Rashidun Caliphate during the first Muslim civil war
  • July 26, 811
    The Bulgarian under monarch Krum beat the Byzantines at the Battle at Pliska and kill Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros I
  • July 26, 1529
    Francisco Pizarro is made governor for life and captain-general in New Spain
  • July 26, 1758
    British battle fleet under General James Wolfe capture France's Fortress of Louisbourg on Ile Royale in Nova Scotia after a 7-week siege, thus gaining control of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River
  • July 26, 1759
    The French relinquish Fort Carillon in Ticonderoga, New York, to the British under General Jeffrey Amherst
  • July 26, 1775
    The Continental Congress established a postal system for the colonies with Benjamin Franklin as the first postmaster general in Philadelphia
  • July 26, 1794
    The French defeat an Austrian army at the Battle of Fleurus in France
  • July 26, 1830
    King Charles X of France issues five ordinances limiting the political and civil rights of citizens triggering July Revolution
  • July 26, 1847
    Liberia becomes the first African colony to become an independent state after Declaration of Independence from American Colonization Society, and promulgate a constitution based on the political principles denoted in the United States Constitution
  • July 26, 1848
    Seneca Falls Convention, the first women's rights convention in the United States, sign the Declaration of Sentiments written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, which leads to the battle for suffrage and women's legal rights
  • July 26, 1953
    Fidel Castro leads attack on Moncada Barracks, beginning Cuban revolution
  • July 26, 1956
    Egypt nationalize Suez Canal, triggering Suez Crisis
  • July 26, 1957
    USSR launches the first intercontinental multistage ballistic missile, R-7 Semyorka
  • July 26, 1963
    Syncom 2, the first geostationary satellite, is launched from Cape Canaveral, United States
  • July 26, 1965
    Republic of Maldives gains independence from Britain

Monday, July 24, 2017

July 25

  • July 25, 306
    After death of the Augustus of the West Constantius Chlorus in Britain, Severus is promoted from Caesar to Emperor by Emperor Galerius, while the troops at Eburacum proclaim Constantius' son, Constantine, which marks start of Civil wars of the Tetrarchy
  • July 25, 1564
    Emperor Ferdinand I dies and is succeeded by his son Maximilian II
  • July 25, 1587
    Japanese shogun Toyotomi Hideyoshi bans Christianity in Japan and orders all Christians to leave
  • July 25, 1593
    Henry IV, France's Protestant King, converts to Catholicism to secure the French crown
  • July 25, 1729
    North Carolina separates from Province of Carolina and becomes royal colony
  • July 25, 1799
    On his way back from Syria, Napoleon Bonaparte defeat superior Ottoman forces at Battle of Abukir, which temporarily secures French control over Egypt and makes Napoleon more popular in France
  • July 25, 1826
    Five members of Decembrist Revolt in Russia are executed by hanging in Saint Petersburg
  • July 25, 1837
    Between Euston and Camden Town in London, William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone successfully demonstrate the first commercial use of an electric telegraph
  • July 25, 1894
    Japanese forces sink the British steamer Kowshing bringing Chinese reinforcements to Korea, which becomes the first naval battle of the First Sino-Japanese War
  • July 25, 1909
    Louis Blériot of France makes the first flight across the English Channel in a heavier-than-air machine, in 37 minutes
  • July 25, 1934
    Austrian Nazis assassinate Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss of Austria during a failed coup attempt
  • July 25, 1957
    Monarchy in Tunisia abolished in favor of a republic and the beylical office is terminated
  • July 25, 1978
    Louise Brown, a British citizen, becomes the first "test tube baby", human born through in vitro fertilization
  • July 25, 2000
    Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde scheduled from Paris to New York City crashes into a hotel in nearby Gonesse hundred passengers and nine crew members aboard after ignition of fuel tanks, which becomes the only fatal Concorde accident
  • July 25, 2007
    Pratibha Patil is sworn in as India's first female president
  • July 25, 2010
    Wikileaks, an online publisher of anonymous, covert, and classified material, leaks to the public over 90,000 internal reports about the United States-led involvement in the War in Afghanistan from 2004 to 2010

Sunday, July 23, 2017

July 24

  • July 24, 356 BC
    Herostratus, inhabitant of Ephesus, ancient city in Greece, now Turkey, burns down the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, in order to become famous
  • July 24, 1534
    French navigator Jacques Cartier, traveling to discover a western passage to the markets of Asia, lands in Canada and claims it for France
  • July 24, 1567
    In Loch Leven Castle prison, Queen of Scots Mary, is forced to abdicate her throne to her one-year-old son James VI
  • July 24, 1651
    Anthony Johnson, an Angolan black, who achieved freedom, receives grant of 250 acres in Virginia and becomes a property owner and slaveholder
  • July 24, 1701
    Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac establishes Fort Ponchartrain for France on the future site of the city of Detroit, Michigan, in an attempt to halt the advance of the English into the western Great Lakes region
  • July 24, 1704
    Admiral George Rooke with an Anglo-Dutch fleet takes Gibraltar from the Spanish in the War of Spanish Succession
  • July 24, 1766
    At Fort Ontario, Canada, Ottawa chief Pontiac and William Johnson sign a peace agreement formally ending the Pontiac's War
  • July 24, 1779
    The Siege of Gibraltar by the Spanish and French is begun
  • July 24, 1783
    Georgia becomes a protectorate of tsarist Russia
  • July 24, 1791
    Maximilien de Robespierre expels all Jacobins opposed to the principles of the French Revolution
  • July 24, 1847
    Mormon leader Brigham Young and his followers, the first members of Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints arrive in the valley of the Great Salt Lake in present-day Utah
  • July 24, 1883
    Matthew Webb, the first person to swim the English Channel, drowns while trying to swim across the Niagara River just below the falls
  • July 24, 1911
    American historian Hiram Bingham III with help of local farmer Melchor Arteaga re-discovers Machu Picchu, "the Lost City of the Incas", bringing it to international attention
  • July 24, 1923
    Treaty of Lausanne, signed by representatives from the Great Britain, France, Italy and Turkey, leads to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey"
  • July 24, 1924
    FIDE, The World Chess Federation is founded as a kind of players' union in Paris, France
  • July 24, 1959
    US Vice President Richard Nixon argues with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev at the opening of the American National Exhibition at Sokolniki Park in Moscow, known as "Kitchen Debate"

Saturday, July 22, 2017

July 23

  • July 23, 1759
    Russians under Saltikov defeat Prussians at Kay in eastern Germany, and one-fourth of Prussian army of 27,000 lost
  • July 23, 1785
    Prussia's King Frederick the Great forms Fürstenbund, an alliance of mostly Protestant princes in the Holy Roman Empire to oppose the long-cherished ambition of Joseph II to add Bavaria to the Habsburg domains
  • July 23, 1829
    William Austin Burt, an American inventor, receives a patent for his typographer, a forerunner of the typewriter
  • July 23, 1868
    The 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified, granting freed slaves full citizenship and equal protection under the laws, however it did not spell out the extent of integration with white America
  • July 23, 1920
    British East Africa Protectorate is turned into a colony and renamed Kenya, for its highest mountain
  • July 23, 1952
    A military junta in Egypt under command of Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrows King Farouk and proclaims republic
  • July 23, 1967
    Massive riot erupts in Detroit after confrontation between police officers and African American bar patrons leaving in 5 days, 43 people dead, 467 injured, and thousands of buildings destroyed
  • July 23, 1972
    First Earth Resources Technology Satellite is launched for obtaining information on agricultural and forestry resources, geology and mineral resources
  • July 23, 1985
    Commodore International introduces the Amiga 1000 computer, which features custom color graphics and stereo sound processors, a multitasking, windowing operating system

Friday, July 21, 2017

July 22

  • July 22, 1298
    King Edward I combines bowmen and cavalry to defeat William Wallace's Scots at Falkirk
  • July 22, 1306
    Philip IV of France seizes all Jewish property and expels about 100,000 men from France
  • July 22, 1456
    At the Battle of Belgrade, the Hungarian army under prince Janos Hunyadi beat sultan Mehmed II ending the siege of Belgrade with fail
  • July 22, 1587
    A second English colony of 114-150 people under John White, financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, is established on Roanoke Island off North Carolina
  • July 22, 1620
    The Pilgrims, early English settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth, United States, set out from Holland destined for the New World via Southampton in England
  • July 22, 1652
    Prince Conde's rebels narrowly defeat Chief Minister Mazarin's loyalist forces at St. Martin, near Paris
  • July 22, 1745
    Second Jacobite Rebellion begins by Charles Edward Stuart in Scotland
  • July 22, 1795
    Spain sign the Peace of Basel, a treaty with France ending the War of the Pyrenees and ceding Santo Domingo to France
  • July 22, 1796
    Cleveland, Ohio, is founded by General Moses Cleaveland while surveying the land
  • July 22, 1802
    A British exploring party led by Matthew Flinders set sail from Sydney to make the first circumnavigation of the Australia and identify it as a continent
  • July 22, 1812
    English troops under the Duke of Wellington defeats the French at the Battle of Salamanca in Spain
  • July 22, 1864
    The Battle of Atlanta reachs its peak when Confederate General John Bell Hood launches an all-out attack on Union General William T. Sherman's Army
  • July 22, 1894
    The first major automobile race with prizes and a promoter is organized as a reliability trial by Le Petit Journal of Paris on the 78-kilometer route between Paris and Rouen, France
  • July 22, 1972
    Venera 8 lands on Venus
  • July 22, 1994
    Shoemaker-Levy Comet strikes Jupiter
  • July 22, 2011
    Anders Behring Breivik kills 77 people in twin terrorist attacks in Norway after a bombing in the Regjeringskvartalet government center in Oslo and a shooting at a political youth camp on the island of Utøya

Thursday, July 20, 2017

July 21

  • July 21, 365
    An earthquake with epicenter in Crete levels the Egyptian Port of Alexandria as well as the Roman outpost of Leptis Magna in Libya, while thousands people dies
  • July 21, 1403
    Henry IV defeats the rebel forces of English nobleman Henry Percy in the Battle of Shrewsbury during Glyndŵr Rising
  • July 21, 1669
    John Locke's Constitution of English colony Carolina is approved
  • July 21, 1711
    Russia and Turkey sign the Treaty of Pruth, which ends the year-long Russo-Turkish War and stipulates the return of Azov to the Ottomans and destruction of Taganrog and several Russian fortresses
  • July 21, 1718
    The Turkish threat to Europe is eliminated with the signing of the Treaty of Passarowitz between Austria, Venice and the Ottoman Empire, starting Tulip period of the Ottoman Empire, a relatively peaceful period, during which the Ottoman Empire orients towards Europe
  • July 21, 1773
    Pope Clement XIV promulgates Dominus ac Redemptor, a papal brief by which the Society of Jesus is suppressed
  • July 21, 1798
    Napoleon Bonaparte defeats Murad Bey and his Mameluke warriors on the outskirts of Cairo at the Battle of the Pyramids ending 700 years of Mamluk rule in Egypt
  • July 21, 1822
    Agustín de Iturbide, a Mexican army general and politician, is crowned Agustín I and becomes the first Emperor of Mexico
  • July 21, 1831
    The Belgian Revolution in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands leads to the creation of Belgium as independent country with Leopold I, who takes the oath as King of the Belgians
  • July 21, 1832
    Treaty of Constantinople grants Greek independence
  • July 21, 1861
    In the first major battle of the Civil War, known as First Battle of Bull Run, Confederate forces repel an attempt by the Union Army to turn their flank in Virginia
  • July 21, 1873
    At Adair, Iowa, more than seven years after the Liberty holdup, the James-Younger gang makes their first train robbery
  • July 21, 1917
    Alexander Kerensky, a moderate socialist party member, becomes Russian Prime Minister
  • July 21, 1925
    John Scopes, a Tennessee high school teacher, is indicted for teaching the theory of evolution to students of his science classes in violation of a Tennessee state law, and fined US$100
  • July 21, 1954
    At Geneva, Switzerland, France agrees to independence of North and South Vietnam ending the First Indochina War
  • July 21, 1969
    American astronaut Neil Armstrong steps off the lunar landing module Eagle during the spaceflight Apollo 11, becoming the first human to walk on the surface of the moon
  • July 21, 1973
    USSR launches Mars 4 for fly-by of the red planet