Thursday, August 17, 2017

August 18

  • August 18, 1227
    Genghis Khan, a Mongol conqueror, dies, which triggers subsequent division of Mongol empire among his sons
  • August 18, 1459
    City of Smederevo falls under the Turks after three-months siege completing the Ottoman conquest of Serbia
  • August 18, 1588
    A storm strikes the remaining 60 ships of the Spanish Armada under the Duke Alonso Pérez de Guzmán after which only 11 are left. Many of the ships go to Ireland where most of the Spaniards are killed by the English
  • August 18, 1759
    The French fleet is destroyed by the British under Admiral Edward Boscawen, at the battle of Lagos Bay in southern Portugal
  • August 18, 1807
    Robert Stevenson begins work on the 35-meters Bell Rock lighthouse at the mouth of Scotland's Firth of Forth, the world's oldest surviving sea-washed lighthouse
  • August 18, 1838
    United States Exploring Expedition, an exploring and surveying expedition of the Pacific Ocean and surrounding lands, led by Charles Wilkes, departs from Hampton Roads
  • August 18, 1846
    General Stephen W. Kearny proclaims all of New Mexico a territory of the United States and declares himself the military governor of the New Mexico Territory shortly after Capture of Santa Fe
  • August 18, 1851
    The Platine War for the hegemony over South America begins between the Argentine Confederation and Empire of Brazil and its alliance
  • August 18, 1862
    Dakota War of 1862 begins in Minnesota four young Sioux murder five white settlers at Acton Township, Minnesota
  • August 18, 1870
    Prussian forces defeat the French at the Battle of Gravelotte, the largest battle during the Franco–Prussian War
  • August 18, 1920
    Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, giving women right to vote, is ratified
  • August 18, 1920
    Serbian geophysicist and astronomer Milutin Milanković links Earth's periodic long-term climate changes with orbital eccentricity and full cycles of Earth's axis precession, later called Milankovitch cycles
  • August 18, 1955
    First Sudanese Civil War begins between the northern part of Sudan and the southern Sudan region

Wednesday, August 16, 2017

August 17

  • August 17, 1743
    By the Treaty of Åbo, Sweden cedes southeast Finland to Russia, ending Sweden's failed war with Russia
  • August 17, 1786
    Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, dies, and his nephew Frederick William II succeeds
  • August 17, 1807
    Robert Fulton's North River Steamboat, popularly known as the Clermont, begin heading up New York's Hudson River on its successful round-trip to Albany and becomes the first commercially successful steamboat
  • August 17, 1812
    Napoleon Bonaparte's army defeats the Russians at the Battle of Smolensk during the Russian retreat to Moscow
  • August 17, 1869
    Oxford beats Harvard on the Thames River in the first international boat race
  • August 17, 1877
    Asaph Hall, an American astronomer, discovered the Mars moon Phobos
  • August 17, 1945
    Indonesia declares independence from Netherlands
  • August 17, 1960
    Gabon gains independence from France
  • August 17, 1970
    Venera 7, the first man-made spacecraft to land successfully on another planet, and to transmit data from there back to Earth, is launched by USSR
  • August 17, 1982
    The first commercially available compact discs are released to the public in Germany
  • August 17, 1987
    Rudolf Hess, a prominent politician in Nazi Germany, commits suicide by hanging himself with an electrical flex in his cell at age 93 in Spandau Prison in Berlin, Germany, where he served 46 years
  • August 17, 1998
    Decline in commodity prices triggers financial crisis in Russia and discredits the government of President Boris Yeltsin
  • August 17, 2008
    Michael Phelps wins his record eighth gold medal of the Beijing Games, in the 4x100 medley relay, in record time of 3:29.34 and holds the record for most gold medals at an Olympics event

Tuesday, August 15, 2017

August 16

  • August 16, 1419
    Wenceslaus IV, King of Germany and Charles IV's son, dies and is succeeded by Sigismund
  • August 16, 1513
    Henry VIII of England and Emperor Maximilian crush the French at the Battle of the Spurs
  • August 16, 1777
    American forces win the Revolutionary War Battle of Bennington, Vermont
  • August 16, 1780
    American troops under General Horatio Gates are badly defeated by the British at the Battle of Camden in South Carolina
  • August 16, 1793
    French National Convention declares universal conscription in the Levée en masse
  • August 16, 1819
    11 people are killed in the Peterloo massacre after English police charge into a crowd of 60,000–80,000 unemployed demonstrators at St. Peter's Field that have gathered to demand the reform of parliamentary representation
  • August 16, 1829
    The original Siamese twins, Chang and Eng Bunker, arrived in Boston from Siam, now Thailand, aboard the ship Sachem to be exhibited to the Western world
  • August 16, 1940
    Foreign Correspondent, American spy thriller film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, is released
  • August 16, 1943
    Sicily is conquered by Allied forces during Operation Husky
  • August 16, 2008
    Russia signs a French-brokered peace plan with Georgia, ending their nine-day-old conflict
  • August 16, 2009
    Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt sets a 100 m world record (9.58) at the 2009 World Championships in Athletics in Berlin

Monday, August 14, 2017

August 15

  • August 15, 636
    At the Battle at Yarmuk Islamic forces under Khalid ibn al-Walid beat a Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius and gain control of Syria and Palestine
  • August 15, 718
    The combined Byzantine–Bulgarian forces decisively defeat Umayyad navy using Greek fire after thirteen months of siege of Constantinople, stopping the Arab threat in Eastern Europe
  • August 15, 778
    The Basques, an ethnic group from western end of the Pyrenees, beat forces of Charlemagne and Roland, prefect of the Breton March, at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass
  • August 15, 1040
    Macbeth kills Duncan I at Pitgaveny and becomes the King of the Scots
  • August 15, 1057
    Macbeth, the King of Scotland, is mortally wounded at the Battle of Lumphanan, by Malcolm Canmore, the eldest son of King Duncan I, who was killed by Macbeth 17 years earlier
  • August 15, 1261
    Constantinople falls to Michael VIII Palaiologos who transforms the Empire of Nicaea into a restored Byzantine Empire
  • August 15, 1511
    Malacca, the capital of the Sultanate of Malacca and center of East Indian spice trade, is captured by Portuguese general Afonso de Albuquerque
  • August 15, 1519
    Panama City is founded
  • August 15, 1549
    Francis Xavier, a co-founder of the Society of Jesus, lands in Kagoshima with the first Portuguese Jesuit missionary to rich Japan
  • August 15, 1598
    Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, leads an Irish force to victory over the British at Battle of Yellow Ford
  • August 15, 1649
    Oliver Cromwell lands in Ireland beginning the conquest of Ireland
  • August 15, 1760
    Frederick II, king of Prussia, defeats the Austrians at the Battle of Liegnitz
  • August 15, 1769
    Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France and continental Europe, is born on the island of Corsica
  • August 15, 1799
    Combined army of Austrians and Imperial Russians under Field Marshal Alexander Suvorov beat French Revolutionary Army at Novi Ligure, Italy, recapturing lands taken by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1796
  • August 15, 1806
    Construction of Arc de Triomphe, a triumphal arch in Paris, starts by order of Napoleon in honor of the victory at Austerlitz
  • August 15, 1865
    Sir Joseph Lister discovers the antiseptic process while working at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary, which led to a reduction in post-operative infections
  • August 15, 1867
    Second Reform Bill extends suffrage in England giving the vote to the working classes
  • August 15, 1914
    Panama Canal, one of the largest and most difficult engineering projects, officially opens in Panama, connecting the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
  • August 15, 1935
    Famed American aviator Wiley Post and humorist Will Rogers are killed in plane crash in Alaska
  • August 15, 1944
    The Allies launch Operation Anvil, as a second Allied invasion force under Lieutenant-General Jacob Devers lands on the Mediterranean coast of France between Cannes and Toulon
  • August 15, 1947
    The greater Indian subcontinent formed by the Partition of India gain independence from the British Empire as Dominion of India, with Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru as the first Prime Minister
  • August 15, 1948
    Republic of Korea, South Korea, is proclaimed by an anti-Communist Syngman Rhee, who has been backed and appointed by the United States as head of the provisional government
  • August 15, 1969
    Woodstock Music and Art Fair, widely regarded as a pivotal moment in popular music history, opens in New York State
  • August 15, 1971
    US President Richard Nixon's administration refuses to settle foreign debts in gold at $35 per ounce, dropping the gold standard, and allowing the dollar to float in foreign exchanges, also imposes a 90-day wage and price freeze

Sunday, August 13, 2017

August 14

  • August 14, 554
    Ravenna becomes the seat of the Byzantine governor of Italy, the Exarch
  • August 14, 582
    Death of Tiberius II Constantine, emperor of Byzantine
  • August 14, 1248
    The foundation stone of Cologne Cathedral, the Gothic church with the largest facade in the world, is laid by Archbishop of Cologne Konrad von Hochstaden
  • August 14, 1281
    Typhoon destroys Mongol fleet off the coast of Japan during the second Mongol attempt to conquer Japan
  • August 14, 1385
    Portuguese under John I of Portugal defeat Castilians at Aljubarrota and regained independence from Crown of Castile
  • August 14, 1385
    Union of Krewo, an act between Poland and Lithuania by which Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, converts to Christianity in exchange for marriage to the underage reigning Queen Jadwiga of Poland, is signed in Kreva Castle, modern-day Belarus
  • August 14, 1457
    Gutenberg's financier Johann Fust and calligrapher Peter Schöffer publish Mainz Psalter, the second major book printed with movable type in the West
  • August 14, 1498
    Columbus lands at the mouth of the Orinoco River in Venezuela, a continental landmass of South America
  • August 14, 1756
    French commander Louis-Joseph de Montcalm takes Fort Oswego, New England, from the British
  • August 14, 1784
    Three Saints Bay, the first Russian settlement in Alaska is established on Kodiak Island by Russian fur trader Grigory Shelikhov
  • August 14, 1790
    Sweden and Russian come to peace at Värälä, by which neither side gains any territory and Russia agrees to not interfere with Sweden's constitution
  • August 14, 1791
    Haitian slaves, led by voodoo priest Dutty Boukman, gather to plan a revolution
  • August 14, 1793
    Republican troops in France lay siege to the city of Lyon
  • August 14, 1816
    Great Britain annexes Tristan da Cunha, a group of volcanic islands in the south Atlantic Ocean
  • August 14, 1842
    Seminole War ends as Indians remove from Florida to Oklahoma and United States officer William Worth declares the war to be at an end
  • August 14, 1880
    Construction of Cologne Cathedral, begun in 1248, is completed
  • August 14, 1893
    Paris Police Ordinance, France, issues first driving licenses, includes required test
  • August 14, 1900
    Eight-Nation Alliance successfully storm and occupy Beijing after about 2 months of siege of the city during the Boxer Rebellion
  • August 14, 1935
    The Social Security Act, signed by United States President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, creates the Social Security system and introduces federal assistance for the elderly
  • August 14, 1941
    US President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill create the Atlantic Charter, the basis for their wartime alliance, pledging to seek to gain no territory and desire no territory changes outside of the choices of people
  • August 14, 1947
    The Muslim majority region, formed by the Partition of India, gain independence from the British Empire as Dominion of Pakistan, which results in the largest mass migration in human history
  • August 14, 1971
    Bahrain declares its independence from Britain
  • August 14, 1971
    British begin internment without trial in Northern Ireland

Saturday, August 12, 2017

August 13

  • August 13, 604
    Chinese emperor Wen is murdered by Yang, his son, who succeeds the throne
  • August 13, 1415
    King Henry V of England takes his army across the English Channel and lays siege on Port Harfleur in Normandy
  • August 13, 1521
    Spanish conqueror Hernando Cortez conquers the Mexican city of Tenochtitlan, modern-day Mexico City, after an 85-day battle and completes conquest of Aztec Empire
  • August 13, 1624
    French King Louis XIII names Cardinal Richelieu his first minister who becomes the world's first Prime Minister and begins to transform France into a centralized state
  • August 13, 1630
    Emperor Frederick II fires Albrecht von Wallenstein, his best military commander
  • August 13, 1642
    Christiaan Huygens, a prominent Dutch mathematician, discovers the Martian south polar cap
  • August 13, 1645
    At Brömsebro peace is signed between Sweden and Denmark. Sweden gains the islands of Gotland and Halland from Denmark, Norway cedes to Sweden the northern provinces of Jämtland and Härjedalen
  • August 13, 1704
    The Battle of Blenheim, the turning point of the War of the Spanish Succession, results in decisive English and Austrian forces victory under Prince Eugene of Savoy and Duke of Marlborough over the Franco-Bavarian army
  • August 13, 1787
    The Russian ambassador to the Ottomans, Yakov Bulgakov, is thrown into prison and the Ottoman Empire declares war on Russia starting the Russo–Turkish War of 1787–1792
  • August 13, 1792
    Louis XVI of France is declared an enemy of the people and imprisoned with the French royal family, including Marie Antoinette, by revolutionaries
  • August 13, 1814
    Netherland is signed to stop the transport of slaves and returns its colonial possessions before the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars by Treaty of London
  • August 13, 1826
    Alexander Gordon Laing, British Army Major, crosses on camel the Sahara Desert from Tripoli and becomes the first European to enter the fabled city of Timbuktu in Mali
  • August 13, 1849
    Hungary's General Artúr Görgey surrender to the Russian forces, who invaded Hungary to help Austrian Empire in struggle against Hungarian rebellions
  • August 13, 1868
    In Arica, Peru, a magnitude 8.5-9.0 earthquake occurs, with catastrophic tsunamis killing 25,000 in South America
  • August 13, 1876
    Richard Wagner's monumental epic, "Der Ring des Nibelungen" is first performed in its entirety at the Festspielhaus in Bayreuth, Bavaria, Germany
  • August 13, 1898
    Manila, the capital of the Philippines, falls to the United States Army under Admiral George Dewey
  • August 13, 1913
    Harry Brearley, an English metallurgist, produces the first stainless steel
  • August 13, 1918
    Bayerische Motoren Werke AG is established as a public company for aircraft-engine production in Germany
  • August 13, 1923
    Mustafa Kemal Atatürk is elected president of the newly established Republic of Turkey
  • August 13, 1960
    Central African Republic proclaims independence from France
  • August 13, 1961
    The units of the East German army close the border and begin building of the Berlin Wall

Friday, August 11, 2017

August 12

  • August 12, 30 BC
    Cleopatra, the most famous queen and the last active pharaoh of Ancient Egypt, kills herself by inducing an Egyptian cobra to bite her after her beloved Mark Antony's suicide
  • August 12, 1093
    In England the foundation stone for Durham Cathedral is laid down
  • August 12, 1332
    Rebels supporting the Balliol beat forces of the infant David II, the son of Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Dupplin Moor in Scotland
  • August 12, 1399
    Battle of the Vorskla River, a major battle between joint armies of Tokhtamysh and Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania, and the Tatars, under Edigu and Temur Qutlugh, ends in a decisive Tatar victory
  • August 12, 1508
    Juan Ponce de León, a Spanish explorer, arrives to New World to conquer the Puerto Rico
  • August 12, 1648
    Seven-year-old Mehmed IV succeeds Ibrahim in the Ottoman House of Osman
  • August 12, 1687
    At the Battle of Mohács, Hungary, the forces of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, commanded by Charles of Lorraine defeated the Turks
  • August 12, 1759
    Forces of Frederick the Great are defeated by combined army of Russians and Austrians under Pyotr Saltykov at Kunersdorf, which gives the victors the opportunity to march against Berlin
  • August 12, 1812
    British commander the Duke of Wellington occupies Madrid, Spain, forcing out Joseph Bonaparte
  • August 12, 1851
    Isaac Singer, the founder of the Singer Sewing Machine Company, is granted a patent for his sewing machine
  • August 12, 1883
    The last quagga, subspecies of the plains zebra, dies at the Artis Magistra zoo in Amsterdam
  • August 12, 1896
    Gold is discovered at Dawson on the Klondike River in Alaska, triggering Klondike Gold Rush in Canada
  • August 12, 1981
    At the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City, and in Boca Raton, Florida, IBM announces the model 5150, called IBM Personal Computer, a progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform
  • August 12, 1982
    Mexico announces it is unable to pay its large foreign debt, triggering a debt crisis that quickly spreads throughout Latin America
  • August 12, 1985
    Japan Airlines Flight 123 crashes in Japan, killing 520 people becoming the worst single-aircraft disaster in history
  • August 12, 1990
    The largest and most complete skeleton of a Tyrannosaurus rex, called "Sue", is discovered near Faith, South Dakota
  • August 12, 2000
    The Russian submarine K-141 Kursk sinks in the Barents Sea, resulting in the deaths of all 118 men on board

Thursday, August 10, 2017

August 11

  • August 11, 3114 BC
    The Mayan calendar, a system of calendars consisting of several counts of different lengths, begins in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica
  • August 11, 117
    The Roman army of Syria hail its legate, Hadrian, as emperor, which made the senate's formal acceptance an almost meaningless event
  • August 11, 991
    Danes under Olaf Tryggvason defeat Anglo-Saxons forces at Battle of Maldon and kill Ealdorman of Essex Byrhtnoth
  • August 11, 1804
    Austrian Empire is proclaimed by Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, who assumes the title of the first Emperor of Austria, as a reaction to Napoleon making himself an emperor
  • August 11, 1918
    Battle of Amiens, the opening phase of the Allied offensive against Germany, known as the Hundred Days Offensive, ends with Allied victory
  • August 11, 1960
    Chad declares independence from France and becomes one of seventeen nations in Africa to gain independence in 1960, what became known as Year of Africa
  • August 11, 1966
    Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation ends after Indonesian General Suharto sign peace agreement with Malaysia
  • August 11, 1984
    United States President Ronald Reagan, during a voice check for a radio broadcast remarks "My fellow Americans, I'm pleased to tell you today that I've signed legislation that will outlaw Russia forever. We begin bombing in five minutes"
  • August 11, 2003
    A heat wave in Paris causes temperatures up to 44 degrees C
  • August 11, 2009
    The Perseid meteor showers peak at 200 observations per hour

Wednesday, August 9, 2017

August 10

  • August 10, 843
    Sons of Louis the Pious divide Charlemagne's Empire by Treaty of Verdun, so Charles the Bald receives the western portion, which later became France, Louis the German get eastern lands, later the medieval kingdom of Germany, and Lothair I receives the central part
  • August 10, 1497
    John Cabot told King Henry VII of his trip to "Asia" after his return from his first successful journey to the Labrador coast
  • August 10, 1500
    Portuguese explorer Diogo Dias discovers Madagascar
  • August 10, 1539
    King Francis I of France signs edict known as Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts, declaring that all official documents are to be written in French, not Latin
  • August 10, 1557
    Spanish and English troops in alliance defeat the French at the Battle of St. Quentin (San Quintino)
  • August 10, 1582
    Russia ends its 25-year war with Poland and cedes Livonia and Estonia to Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth losing access to the Baltic
  • August 10, 1627
    Cardinal Richelieu begins a siege to Protestant La Rochelle, a Huguenot stronghold
  • August 10, 1628
    The Swedish 69-meter warship Vasa capsizes and sinks in Stockholm harbor on her maiden voyage because the ballast is insufficient to counterweight the 64 guns and ballast
  • August 10, 1675
    King of England Charles II lays the foundation stone of Royal Observatory in Greenwich, an important institution in the history of astronomy and navigation
  • August 10, 1678
    The Treaty of Nijmegen ends the hostilities with France and gives to France control over the region of the Franche-Comté
  • August 10, 1680
    In New Mexico Popé, a Tewa religious leader, leads rebellion of Pueblo Indians against Spaniads
  • August 10, 1755
    The Great Upheaval, forced population transfer of the French Acadian population from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, begins
  • August 10, 1779
    Louis XVI of France frees the last remaining serfs on royal land
  • August 10, 1787
    Mozart completes his composition Eine Kleine Nachtmusik
  • August 10, 1792
    Some 20,000 Parisians attack the Tuileries palace of Louis XVI at the instigation of Georges Jacques Danton and massacre some 600 guardsmen after Louis orders his Swiss guard to stop firing on the people
  • August 10, 1809
    Quito, the seat of a real audiencia of Spain in modern-day Ecuador, declares independence from Spain
  • August 10, 1861
    Union general Nathaniel Lyon the first Union general to be killed in the American Civil War, at the Battle of Wilson's Creek in Missouri, which ends with a Confederate victory
  • August 10, 1913
    Second Balkan War ends with Treaty of Bucharest, which confirms territorial acquisitions of Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria at the expense of Ottoman Empire during the First and Second Balkan Wars
  • August 10, 1927
    United States President Calvin Coolidge formally dedicates the Mount Rushmore site
  • August 10, 2010
    The World Health Organization declares the H1N1 influenza pandemic over, saying worldwide flu activity has returned to typical seasonal patterns

Tuesday, August 8, 2017

August 9

  • August 9, 48 BC
    Dictator of the Roman Republic Julius Caesar defeats Senatorial army under Gnaeus Pompeius in the battle of Pharsalus in central Greece, the decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War
  • August 9, 14
    Augustus, the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, dies and his adopted son Tiberius succeeds to the throne
  • August 9, 378
    Cavalry of Visigoth, a branch of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples, destroys Roman army and kills emperor Valens at battle of Adrianople
  • August 9, 910
    King Edward of Wessex, son of Alfred the Great, defeats the Northumbrian Vikings at the Battle of Tettenhall
  • August 9, 1378
    Cardinals declare Pope Urban VI lawless, anti-Christian, and devil
  • August 9, 1483
    Pope Sixtus IV celebrates the first mass in the Sistine Chapel, chapel in the official residence of the Pope, named in his honor
  • August 9, 1805
    Austria joins Britain, Russia, Sweden and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in the Third Coalition against Napoleonic France and Spain
  • August 9, 1842
    United States-Canada border is defined by Webster–Ashburton Treaty
  • August 9, 1855
    Antonio López de Santa Anna resigns for the 11th and the last time as President of Mexico
  • August 9, 1896
    Otto Lilienthal, German aerodynamic engineer, makes his last glide when his glider No. 11 is upset by a sudden gust of wind and he is unable to regain control
  • August 9, 1936
    American track and field athlete Jesse Owens wins his fourth gold medal at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, so is called "single-handedly crushing Hitler's myth of Aryan supremacy"
  • August 9, 1942
    British arrest Indian nationalist Mohandas Gandhi and the entire Congress Working Committee in Bombay
  • August 9, 1945
    Fat Man, an implosion-type atomic bomb with a plutonium core, is dropped on Nagasaki, Japan, killing outright 35,000-40,000 people and thousands more from the effect of burns and radiation sickness during the following months
  • August 9, 1965
    Singapore gains independence from Malaysia
  • August 9, 1974
    Richard Nixon, the 37th President of the United States, resigns from office as a result of the Watergate Scandal, triggered by break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex
  • August 9, 2007
    The French global bank BNP Paribas in the United Kingdom blocks withdrawals from three hedge funds heavily committed in subprime mortgages, signaling the beginning of Great Recession

Monday, August 7, 2017

August 8

  • August 8, 70
    Antonia Fortress is destroyed by the Romans during the siege of Jerusalem
  • August 8, 117
    Trajan, emperor of Rome, dies
  • August 8, 869
    Lothair II, King of Lotharingia, dies
  • August 8, 870
    Kingdom of Lotharingia, realm of Lothair II, who died some monthes ago, is devided between his uncles Louis the German of East Francia and Charles the Bald of West Francia by the Treaty of Meerssen
  • August 8, 1579
    Cornerstone is laid for Tycho Brahe's Uraniborg observatory, the first custom-built observatory in modern Europe, by order of Frederick II, King of Denmark
  • August 8, 1588
    The English Navy destroy the Spanish Armada at the Battle of Gravelines which opens the world for English trade and colonization
  • August 8, 1700
    Denmark signs the peace treaty of Travendal with Sweden during the Great Northern War
  • August 8, 1709
    In Lisbon, Bartolomeu de Gusmão manages to lift a balloon full of hot air about 4.5 meters in front of King John V and the Portuguese court, which becomes the first documented balloon flight in Europe
  • August 8, 1736
    Mahomet Weyonomon, a Mohegan sachem or leader, dies of smallpox while waiting to see King George II to complain directly about British settlers encroaching on tribal lands in the Connecticut colony
  • August 8, 1786
    Savoyard mountain guide Jacques Balmat and doctor Michel-Gabriel Paccard become the first men to climb Mont Blanc in France
  • August 8, 1788
    King Louis XVI calls the Estates General, which have not met since 1614, because of loosing of power
  • August 8, 1815
    Napoleon Bonaparte set sail for Saint Helena, an island in the South Atlantic Ocean, to spend the remainder of his days in exile
  • August 8, 1846
    David Wilmot, an American politic, offers to ban slavery in any territory to be acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War in his speech in the United States House of Representatives, the event known as the Wilmot Proviso
  • August 8, 1897
    Anarchist Michele Angiolillo assassinates Spanish Prime Minister Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, Spain, and Marcelo Azcárraga Palmero becomes prime minister of Spain
  • August 8, 1919
    British recognize Afghanistan's independence with Treaty of Rawalpindi
  • August 8, 1945
    USSR establishes a communist government in the northern half of the occupied Korean peninsula, stopping along 38th parallel after invasion of Manchuria, per the agreement with the United States
  • August 8, 1949
    Bhutan becomes an independent monarchy after Treaty of Friendship between India and Bhutan
  • August 8, 1963
    Great Train Robbery occurs in England, 2.6 million pounds, or US$7.3 million
  • August 8, 1988
    Thousands of protesters in Myanmar are killed during anti-government demonstrations, which leads to a bloody military coup
  • August 8, 1991
    The Warsaw radio mast, the tallest construction ever built, collapses
  • August 8, 2008 08:08
    An estimated one billion people worldwide watch the opening ceremonies of the Games of the XXIX Olympiad on TV

Sunday, August 6, 2017

August 7

  • August 7, 936
    Otto the Great is crowned as King of Germany in Charlemagne's former capital of Aachen, known in French as Aix-la-Chapelle, after death his father Henry the Fowler
  • August 7, 1485
    Henry Tudor's army landed in Milford Haven, South-Wales
  • August 7, 1620
    Kepler's mother is arrested for witchcraft
  • August 7, 1620
    French king Louis XIII beats forces of his mother Marie de Medici at the Battle at Ponts-de-Cé, Poitou ending a civil war
  • August 7, 1714
    Battle of Gangut between Swedish Navy and Imperial Russian Navy during Great Northern War becomes the first victory of the Russian fleet in its history
  • August 7, 1760
    Fort Loudon, Tennessee, surrender to Cherokee Indians
  • August 7, 1782
    A statue of Peter the Great, made by French sculptor Etienne-Maurice Falconet, is unveiled in Saint Petersburg on the 100th anniversary of his accession to the throne
  • August 7, 1814
    Pope Pius VII reinstated the Jesuits
  • August 7, 1819
    South American liberator Simón Bolívar defeats Spanish forces under General Jose Barreiro in New Granada, Colombia at the Battle of Boyaca
  • August 7, 1839
    Shah Shujah Durrani, the leader of the Abdali group of Pashtuns people, is installed as Afghan "puppet king" by the British after successful invasion of Afghanistan
  • August 7, 1947
    Kon-Tiki expedition, journey across the Pacific Ocean from South America to the Polynesian islands to demonstrate that people from pre-Columbian America could have made long sea voyages, led by Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl, is completed
  • August 7, 1955
    Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering, the precursor to Sony, begins selling its first transistor radios in Japan
  • August 7, 1960
    Ivory Coast gains independence from France
  • August 7, 1964
    US Congress approves Gulf of Tonkin resolution, which gives to President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization to use military force in Southeast Asia
  • August 7, 1995
    Operation Storm, launched by Croatian against Serbian forces in Krajina, ends with a United Nations-brokered ceasefire and start of surrendering of remaining Serbian forces
  • August 7, 1998
    The bombings of the United States embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi, Kenya, linked to terrorist Osama Bin Laden, kill 224 people and injure over 4,500
  • August 7, 1999
    The Russian Federation begins Second Chechen War in response to the invasion of hundreds of Chechen guerrillas in the Russian republic of Dagestan
  • August 7, 2008
    Georgia sends its army to regain control of South Ossetia which has had de facto independence since 1992, beginning Russia–Georgia war

August 6

  • August 6, 258
    Pope Sixtus II, bishop of Rome, is beheaded upon orders of Emperor Valerian
  • August 6, 1517
    Francysk Skaryna, a Belarusian humanist and one of the first book printers in Eastern Europe, releases in Prague The Psalter, his first edition in the Old Belarusian language
  • August 6, 1753
    Georg Richmann, German physicist, dies of electrocution in St. Petersburg, Russia, during an attempt to duplicate Benjamin Franklin's "sentry box" experiment becoming the first person in history to die while conducting electrical experiments
  • August 6, 1774
    Mother Ann Lee, founder of the Shaker Movement, arrives in New York
  • August 6, 1806
    The Holy Roman Empire goes out of existence after the last Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicates as a consequence of the Treaty of Pressburg and reorganizing Germany under a Napoleon
  • August 6, 1825
    Bolivia gains independence from Peru with Latin America political leader Simón Bolívar as the first president after 15 years of war
  • August 6, 1870
    Prussia beat France in the Battle of Spicheren
  • August 6, 1888
    Martha Tabram, an English prostitute, is murdered by an unknown assailant, believed to be Jack the Ripper, a serial killer, who murdered from 5 to 11 women between August and November in London's Whitechapel district
  • August 6, 1890
    Convicted murderer William Kemmler, senteced to death at Auburn State Prison in New York for murdering his lover, Matilda Ziegler, with an axe, becomes the first person to be executed in the electric chair
  • August 6, 1926
    Warner Bros premieres Vitaphone sound-on-disc movie system in New York, Don Juan with John Barrymore shown
  • August 6, 1945
    American airmen drop atomic bomb, developed by the Manhattan Project, on the Japanese city of Hiroshima, killing from 90,000 to 166,000 people, which becomes together with bomb dropped on another Japanese city, Nagasaki, the only use of nuclear weapons in war
  • August 6, 1962
    Jamaica gains independence from Britain
  • August 6, 1978
    Pope Paul VI dies at age 80 of heart attack at summer residence in Castelgandolfo
  • August 6, 1990
    United Nations Security Council votes 13-0 to place economic sanctions against Iraq in response to its invasion of Kuwait
  • August 6, 1996
    NASA announces that the ALH 84001 meteorite, found in Allan Hills, Antarctica, and thought to originate from Mars, contains evidence of primitive life-forms

Friday, August 4, 2017

August 5

  • Guangwu of Han, one of the many descendants of the Han imperial family, establishes Eastern Han dynasty in China
  • August 5, 1391
    Castilian sailors in Barcelona, Spain set fire to a Jewish ghetto, killing 100 people and setting off four days of violence against the Jews
  • August 5, 1763
    Colonel Henry Bouquet decisively defeat the Indians at the Battle of Bushy Run in Pennsylvania during Pontiac's rebellion
  • August 5, 1815
    A peace treaty with Tripoli, which follows treaties with Algeria and Tunis, brings an end to the Barbary Wars and the American practice of paying tribute to the pirate states
  • August 5, 1864
    Spectrum of a comet observed for first time, by Giovanni Donati, who determines their physical composition of the comet 1864b, which spectrum he finds containing three emitting lines
  • August 5, 1891
    American Express begins the first company to develop a large-scale traveller's cheque system
  • August 5, 1960
    Upper Volta, today known as Burkina Faso, gains independence from France
  • August 5, 1962
    Nelson Mandela is arrested for incitement and illegally leaving South Africa
  • August 5, 2016
    2016 Summer Olympics are opened in Rio de Janeiro

Thursday, August 3, 2017

August 4

  • August 4, 1265
    At the Battle of Evesham Edward I of England defeat forces rebellious barons under Simon de Montfort, who dies in battle
  • August 4, 1347
    After an 11 month siege, French city of Calais falls to England's King Edward III
  • August 4, 1578
    King Sebastian of Portugal is killed and Portuguese forces are defeated at the Battle of Alcácer Quibir, in Morocco against Saadi dynasty of Morocco, which leads to Portuguese succession crisis of 1580
  • August 4, 1735
    Jury acquits John Zenger is charged with seditious libel by royal governor of New York
  • August 4, 1753
    George Washington becomes a master mason
  • August 4, 1789
    National Constituent Assembly in France dissolves feudal system by abolishing the privileges of nobility
  • August 4, 1791
    The chief item in the Peace of Sistova agreement between the Austrian Empire and Ottoman Empire returns of Belgrade, taken in 1789 by the Holy Roman emperor Joseph II, to Turkey
  • August 4, 1912
    United States forces are dispatched from Annapolis to the Managua, the capital of Nicaragua, at the recommendation of the Nicaraguan president, starting occupation of Nicaragua
  • August 4, 1916
    United States agrees to buy Virgin Islands from Denmark for $25 million
  • August 4, 1944
    German Gestapo discover the hiding place of Anne Frank and family, and others hiding in a warehouse and sent to the Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland, but Anne's diary is left behind, undiscovered by the Germans, later found in 1947
  • August 4, 1984
    The African republic Upper Volta changes its name to Burkina Faso
  • August 4, 2009
    North Korean leader Kim Jong Il pardons two American journalists, who have been arrested and imprisoned for illegal entry earlier in the year, after former United States President Bill Clinton meets with Kim in North Korea