Saturday, June 24, 2017

June 25

  • June 25, 253
    Saint Lucius I begins his reign as Catholic Pope
  • June 25, 524
    Forces of Burgundian Kingdom beat the Frankish army at Battle of Vézeronce averting expansion of Merovingians
  • June 25, 841
    Charles the Bald and Louis the German, two grandsons of Charlemagne, defeat third grandson Lothair I at Battle of Fontenoy during Carolingian Civil War
  • June 25, 1530
    Augsburg Confession, the 28 articles of the Lutheran churches, are presented to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V as an attempt to restore religious and political unity in the Holy Roman Empire
  • June 25, 1630
    The fork is introduced to American dining by John Winthrop, Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • June 25, 1767
    The Jesuits are expelled from Spanish America, and their work is taken over by the Dominican Fathers
  • June 25, 1850
    Lord Palmerston, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, claims that every British subject in the world should be protected by the British Empire and calls to to blockade Greece after a mob in Athens burned down the home of a British citizen
  • June 25, 1876
    Alliance of native American forces led by Chiefs Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull defeat the United States Army troops of Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer in a bloody battle near southern Montana's Little Bighorn River
  • June 25, 1947
    The Diary of a Young Girl, a book written by Jewish girl Anne Frank during the German occupation of the Netherlands in World War II, is published
  • June 25, 1950
    Korean War, a war between North and South Korea, begins after Korean People's Army assisted by the Soviet Union cross the 38th parallel and invade South Korea
  • June 25, 1975
    Mozambique gains independence after over four centuries of Portuguese rule
  • June 25, 1991
    Slovenia and Croatia declare independence from Yugoslavia
  • June 25, 2009
    Michael Jackson, an American singer-songwriter often referred to as the "King of Pop", dies of acute propofol and benzodiazepine intoxication after suffering from cardiac arrest

Friday, June 23, 2017

June 24

  • June 24, 79
    Titus succeeds to the throne after death of his father, Roman emperor Vespasian
  • June 24, 1128
    Afonso I of Portugal defeat the army of his mother Theresa and takes the leadership of the County of Portugal
  • June 24, 1314
    Robert the Bruce, King of of Scotland, defeats superior English army at Bannockburn forcing English forces withdraw from Scotland, which becomes the key point in the First War of Scottish Independence
  • June 24, 1340
    The English fleet defeat the French fleet at Sluys, off the Flemish coast
  • June 24, 1497
    Italian explorer John Cabot, on a voyage for England, lands in North America on what is now Newfoundland and claims the new land for King Henry VII of England
  • June 24, 1535
    The Münster Rebellion, an attempt of radical, millennialist, Anabaptists to establish a theocracy ends in bloodshed
  • June 24, 1622
    The Dutch attempt to conquer Macau during Dutch–Portuguese War ends with fail after a three-day battle
  • June 24, 1648
    Cossacks under Bohdan Khmelnytsky slaughter 2,000 Jews and 600 Polish Catholics in Ukraine
  • June 24, 1664
    New Jersey, named after the Isle of Jersey, is founded
  • June 24, 1692
    Kingston, Jamaica, is founded
  • June 24, 1793
    First republican constitution in France is adopted
  • June 24, 1812
    450,000 men of the Grande Armée of Napoleon crosses the Nieman River and begins invasion of Russia, resulting in catastrophic defeat for Franch
  • June 24, 1821
    Simón Bolívar defeat the Royalist forces, led by Spanish Field Marshal Miguel de la Torre at Battle of Carabobo outside of Caracas
  • June 24, 1859
    At the Battle of Solferino, also known as the Battle of the Three Sovereigns, the French army led by Napoleon III defeat the Austrian army under Franz Joseph I in northern Italy during Second Italian War of Independence
  • June 24, 1932
    Bloodless revolution ends absolute monarchy in Thailand
  • June 24, 1993
    Andrew Wiles, a British mathematician, wins worldwide fame after presenting his solution for Fermat's Last Theorem, a problem that has been unsolved for more than three centuries

Thursday, June 22, 2017

June 23

  • June 23, 207 BC
    Carthage is defeated by Roman armies led by the consuls Marcus Livius and Gaius Claudius Nero in the Battle of the Metaurus, while Carthaginian general Hasdrubal is killed, which becomes key battle in the Second Punic War
  • June 23, 1606
    Treaty of Vienna ends anti-Habsburg uprising in Royal Hungary
  • June 23, 1757
    Forces of the East India Company led by Robert Clive defeat Indians in Battle of Plassey marking the beginning of formal British rule in India after years of commercial activity
  • June 23, 1758
    British and Hanoverian armies defeat the French at Krefeld in Germany
  • June 23, 1775
    First regatta is hold on Thames, England
  • June 23, 1845
    The congress of the Republic of Texas vote to accept annexation by the US after 10 years as an independent republic
  • June 23, 1848
    A bloody insurrection of workers in Paris, later ruthlessly suppressed by General Cavaignac, erupts to protest inflation, unemployment and corruption
  • June 23, 1865
    Confederate General Stand Watie, who was also a Cherokee chief, surrenders the last sizable Confederate army at Fort Towson, in the Oklahoma Territory
  • June 23, 1894
    The International Olympic Committee is created by French Baron Pierre de Coubertin with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president
  • June 23, 1938
    Marineland, the world's first oceanarium, opens in Florida, United States
  • June 23, 1956
    Gamal Abdel Nasser is elected president of Egypt and new constitution of Egypt is accepted at referendum
  • June 23, 1960
    Food and Drug Administration, a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, approve Enovid, the first combined oral contraceptive pill, for contraceptive use
  • June 23, 2010
    Marina Bay Sands, a casino-based vacation resort, is officially opened in Singapore and becomes the 2nd most expensive building in the world

Wednesday, June 21, 2017

June 22

  • June 22, 168 BC
    Rome under general Lucius Aemilius Paullus defeats Philip V of Macedon at battle of Pydna and assures dominance in Greece
  • June 22, 431
    First Council of Ephesus, the third ecumenical council of the early Christian Church, opens
  • June 22, 1476
    The Swiss overcome Burgundy's Charles the Bold at the Battle of Morat during Burgundian Wars
  • June 22, 1497
    Antitax insurrection in Cornwall is suppressed at Blackheath, London
  • June 22, 1633
    Italian scientist Galileo Galilei is forced to recant that the Earth orbits the Sun and commuted to house arrest by the Roman Catholic Inquisition
  • June 22, 1691
    Ahmed II succeeded Suleiman II in the Ottoman House of Osman
  • June 22, 1740
    King Frederick II of Prussia ends torture and guarantees freedom of religion and the press
  • June 22, 1783
    A poisonous cloud from Laki volcanic eruption in Iceland reaches Le Havre in France
  • June 22, 1799
    In France a scientific congress adopts the length of the meter as one ten-millionth of the distance along the surface of the Earth from its equator to its pole, in a curved line of latitude passing through the center of Paris
  • June 22, 1815
    Napoleon Bonaparte abdicates a second time, in favour of his son, Napoléon Francis Joseph Charles Bonaparte
  • June 22, 1816
    An English statute establishes a single gold standard for money, with silver coins reduced to status of tokens of limited legal tender
  • June 22, 1847
    The first doughnut with a hole in it is created in United States
  • June 22, 1874
    Doctor Andrew Taylor Still of Macon, Missouri, founds osteopathy, a type of alternative medicine, that claims that the wellbeing of an individual depends on their bones, muscles, ligaments and connective tissue functioning smoothly together
  • June 22, 1922
    The Irish Civil War begins between Irish republicans over the Anglo-Irish Treaty shortly after the establishment of the Irish Free State
  • June 22, 1922
    Pius XI becomes Pope
  • June 22, 1940
    After German blitz France formally surrenders at the signing ceremony, held in the same wagon-lit railroad car used by French Marshal Ferdinand Foch to accept the surrender of Germany in 1918
  • June 22, 1941
    Over 4 million soldiers of the Axis powers invade the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa, the largest military operation in human history, opening the Eastern Front of World War II
  • June 22, 1944
    Soviet forces, comprised of about 1.2 million men, 2715 tanks, and 5327 aircraft, launch Operation Bagration on German Army Group Centre to clear German forces from the Belorussian SSR and eastern Poland
  • June 22, 1945
    Okinawa, Japan, is declared captured by the Allies with total US casualties about 80,000 and 120,000 Japanese
  • June 22, 1978
    Charon, a satellite of the dwarf planet Pluto, is discovered by James Christy
  • June 22, 1992
    Two skeletons excavated in Yekaterinburg are identified as Czar Nicholas II and Tsarina Alexandra

Tuesday, June 20, 2017

June 21

  • June 21, 217 BC
    Roman army is ambushed and destroyed by Hannibal's army, numbering around 55,000 troops, at the Battle of Lake Trasimene, which becomes the largest ambush in military history
  • June 21, 1377
    Edward III, King of England, dies
  • June 21, 1547
    The great fire in Moscow destroys sections of Moscow which had been built almost entirely of wood including some building in the Kremlin
  • June 21, 1607
    The Church of England Episcopal Church, the first Protestant Episcopal parish in America, is established at Jamestown
  • June 21, 1661
    Sweden signs the Treaty of Cardis, in which Russia agrees to return to Sweden areas it had conquered in the Baltic lands
  • June 21, 1675
    Sir Christopher Wren begins to rebuild St Paul's Cathedral in London, replacing the old building which has been destroyed by the Great fire
  • June 21, 1749
    English transport ships land 2576 colonists on what is now Nova Scotia to establish a British military base, naming the town Halifax
  • June 21, 1788
    New Hampshire ratifies the United States Constitution as the ninth state, and by the terms of Article VII it is in effect
  • June 21, 1834
    Obed Hussey, an American inventor, patents mechanical reaping machine
  • June 21, 1887
    Britain celebrates the golden jubilee of Queen Victoria
  • June 21, 1893
    George Washington Gale Ferris, engineer, completes the construction of a 77-meter high revolving steel wheel with 38 passenger cars, each with 40 plush chairs, for the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, the first Ferris wheel
  • June 21, 1897
    In Austria a giant Ferris wheel, designed by Walter Bassett of England, is opened in Vienna to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the accession of Emperor Franz Joseph to the Habsburg throne
  • June 22, 1940
    After German blitz France formally surrenders at the signing ceremony, held in the same wagon-lit railroad car used by French Marshal Ferdinand Foch to accept the surrender of Germany in 1918
  • June 21, 1948
    In a lab in Manchester, England, the Small Scale Experimental Machine computer, nicknamed "Baby" is created, the first to contain memory (128 bytes) which could store a program
  • June 21, 1985
    It is confirmed by American, German, and Brazilian forensic pathologists that the body exhumed in Brazil on June 6 is, indeed, that of the German physician in Auschwitz concentration camp, Josef Mengele

Monday, June 19, 2017

June 20

  • June 20, 451
    Combined Roman and Visigoth forces under Roman general Flavius Aetius stop Attila's army at the Catalaunian Plains in eastern France, the last great military campaign by Western Roman Empire
  • June 20, 656
    Caliph Uthman ibn Affan is assassinated, thus Ali becomes caliph
  • June 20, 840
    King of the Franks Louis the Pious dies triggering the Civil war in Frankish kingdom between his sons
  • June 20, 1646
    In England, Parliament signs a peace treaty with Royalists
  • June 20, 1675
    A band of Pokanoket retaliate for the execution of three of their people and attack several isolated homesteads in the small Plymouth colony settlement of Swansea, starting King Philip's War
  • June 20, 1743
    The British warship Centurion under Commodore George Anson engaged and overcame the Spanish treasure galleon, Nuestra Senora de Covadonga, near the Philippines killing 58 Spaniards and capturing over 1 million Spanish silver dollars and 500 pounds of native silver
  • June 20, 1756
    In India rebels defeat the British army at Calcutta and imprison between 64 and 146 British soldiers in a suffocating cell that gained notoriety as the Black Hole of Calcutta
  • June 20, 1789
    Oath on the Tennis Court in Versailles, France, bonds members of the Third Estate to resist eviction until they have a new constitution
  • June 20, 1791
    King Louis XVI is caught trying to escape French Revolution in the so-called Flight to Varennes
  • June 20, 1793
    Eli Whitney, an American inventor, petitions patent for a cotton gin, a machine which cleans the tight-clinging seeds from short-staple cotton, which becomes one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution
  • June 20, 1819
    The paddle-wheel steamship Savannah arrives in Liverpool, England, after a voyage of 27 days and 11 hours and becomes the first steamship to successfully cross the Atlantic
  • June 20, 1837
    Queen Victoria ascends the British throne following the death of her uncle, King William IV, and beginning the Victorian era when the British Empire get the apex
  • June 20, 1877
    Alexander Graham Bell installs the world's first commercial telephone service in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • June 20, 1893
    A jury in New Bedford, Massachusetts, finds Lizzie Borden innocent of the ax murders of her father, wealthy Fall River, Massachusetts, businessman Andrew Borden and his wife, Abby Borden, however, is ostracized for the rest of her life
  • June 20, 1948
    West German Finance Minister Ludwig Erhard eliminates most price controls and introduces a new currency, the "Deutsche mark"
  • June 20, 1960
    Federation of Mali, with Senegal, becomes independent of France
  • June 20, 1990
    The asteroid Eureka, the first Mars trojan, is discovered by David H. Levy
  • June 20, 1991
    The Bundestag in Bonn decides that Berlin should become the German capital
  • June 20, 2003
    The North East MRT Line, the world's first fully automated and driverless subway opens in Singapore

Sunday, June 18, 2017

June 19

  • June 19, 1821
    The Ottomans defeat the Greeks at the Battle of Dragasani
  • June 19, 1862
    Congress prohibits slavery in all current and future United States territories
  • June 19, 1867
    Mexican Emperor Maximilian is executed on the orders of Benito Juárez by a firing squad in Queretaro
  • June 19, 1953
    Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, who were convicted of conspiring to pass U.S. atomic secrets to the Soviets, are executed by electric chair at Sing Sing Prison in Ossining, New York
  • June 19, 1961
    Kuwait regains complete independence from Britain
  • June 19, 2014
    King Juan Carlos I of Spain abdicates in favor of his son, who ascends the Spanish throne as King Felipe VI

Saturday, June 17, 2017

June 18

  • June 18, 860
    Taking advantage from Byzantine-Arab Wars, Vikings from Rus' Khaganate on 200 vessels attack and lay siege of the city of Constantinople
  • June 18, 1152
    Friedrich I Barbarossa is crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Adrian IV in Rome
  • June 18, 1178
    In Canterbury, five men observe explosions on the Moon, likely the origin of lunar crater Giordano Bruno
  • June 18, 1429
    French forces under Joan of Arc defeat the main British army at the battle of Patay
  • June 18, 1643
    In England the battle of Chalgrove Field during the English Civil War ends with a minor Royalist victory
  • June 18, 1685
    Monmouth Rebellion, an attempt to overthrow James II, begins in England
  • June 18, 1757
    Austrian army beat Prussia at the Battle of Kolín, Bohemia
  • June 18, 1812
    War of 1812 begins as United States declares war against Britain
  • June 18, 1815
    Emperor of the French Napoleon, who escaped from exile in island of Elba, is defeated by British commander Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo, which brings a conclusion to the Napoleonic Wars and marks the beginning of a Pax Britannica
  • June 18, 1935
    England and Germany sign a naval treaty, limiting the German surface fleet to 35 percent of British tonnage, and submarine fleet to 45 percent
  • June 18, 1948
    Long Play, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is introduced by Columbia Records and becomes a new standard by the record industry
  • June 18, 1979
    Jimmy Carter and Leonid Brezhnev sign the SALT II agreement in Vienna
  • June 18, 1982
    Argentine military dictator Leopoldo Galtieri resigns, in the wake of his country's defeat in the Falklands War
  • June 18, 1983
    Sally Ride becomes the first American woman in space
  • June 18, 1989
    Solidarity, a Polish non–communist party-controlled trade union, wins landslide victory over the Communist Party in first free elections in Poland, beginning Revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe and collapse of the Soviet Bloc in Europe

Friday, June 16, 2017

June 17

  • June 17, 362
    Roman emperor Julian decrees religious toleration in the empire and attempts to reestablish paganism
  • June 17, 1397
    The Union of Kalmar, which grows out of the dynastic ties of the Scandinavian countries, unites Denmark, Sweden and Norway under one monarch
  • June 17, 1579
    Sir Francis Drake sails into San Francisco Bay and proclaims English sovereignty over New Albion in modern-day California
  • June 17, 1696
    John III Sobieski, King of Lithuania and Poland, dies
  • June 17, 1767
    English navigator Samuel Wallis becomes the first European to visit Tahiti in existing records
  • June 17, 1789
    The Third Estate of the Estates-General in France declare itself a national assembly, and undertake to frame a constitution
  • June 17, 1797
    Mohammad Khan Qajar, cruel ruler of Persia, is killed, and his nephew Fath Ali Shah succeeded him
  • June 17, 1848
    Austrian General Alfred Windisch-Grätz crushes a Czech uprising in Prague against Habsburg control
  • June 17, 1930
    United States President Herbert Hoover signs the Hawley-Smoot Tariff bill, which increases some 900 American import duties, so contributing to the depth of the Depression
  • June 17, 1942
    First World War II American expeditionary force lands in Africa
  • June 17, 1944
    Republic of Iceland proclaimed at Thingvallir, Iceland
  • June 17, 1950
    Julius Rosenberg is arrested in the US on suspicion of espionage, accused of heading a spy ring that passed top-secret information concerning the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union
  • June 17, 1967
    China becomes world's fourth thermonuclear power
  • June 17, 1972
    Five men are arrested for breaking and entering into the DNC headquarters at the Watergate complex, beginning the Watergate scandal

Thursday, June 15, 2017

June 16

  • June 16, 1487
    Henry VII beat John de la Pole at the Battle at Stoke, the last battle of the Wars of the Roses
  • June 16, 1671
    Stenka Razin, Cossack rebel leader, is tortured and executed in Moscow
  • June 16, 1755
    British capture Fort Beauséjour during French and Indian War and expel the Acadians, who move to destinations like Maine and Louisiana
  • June 16, 1779
    Spain, in support of the US, declares war on England
  • June 16, 1815
    Napoleon defeat the Prussians under Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher at the Battle of Ligny, Belgium
  • June 16, 1824
    The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is formed at Old Slaughter's Coffee House in London under the direction of Arthur Broome
  • June 16, 1875
    In Paris, France, the first stone is laid for the Sacré-Cœur basilica in Montmartre, dedicated in honor of casualties during the Franco-Prussian War
  • June 16, 1903
    Ford Motor Company, an American automaker, incorporates in Detroit
  • June 16, 1940
    Marshal Philippe Pétain takes over the government, and immediately calls for a ceasefire after Paul Reynaud resigns as Prime Minister of France
  • June 16, 1960
    Psycho, a psychological thriller-horror film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, considered one of the greatest films of all time, is released
  • June 16, 1963
    Valentina Tereshkova from Soviet Union becomes the first woman in space
  • June 16, 1976
    Student uprisings begin in Soweto, South Africa, in response to the introduction of Afrikaans as the medium of instruction in local schools
  • June 16, 1977
    Leonid Brezhnev is named president of USSR
  • June 16, 1989
    A crowd of 250,000 gathers at Heroes Square in Budapest for the historic reburial of Imre Nagy, the former Hungarian prime minister who had been executed in 1958
  • June 16, 2009
    The first summit of BRICS economic bloc, an international association of emerging national economies created by Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, begins

Wednesday, June 14, 2017

June 15

  • June 15, 1094
    El Cid aka Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, a Castilian nobleman and military leader, with a combined Christian and Moorish army conquest Valencia and becomes the ruler of Taifa of Valencia
  • June 15, 1184
    King Magnus V of Norway is defeated by his rival, Sverre
  • June 15, 1215
    King John of England affixes his royal seal to the Magna Carta, granting his barons more liberty and asserting the supremacy of the law over the king
  • June 15, 1389
    Ottoman army under Murad I defeats Serbian army at the battle of Kosovo completing conquest of Serbia
  • June 15, 1467
    Philip the Good Duke of Burgundy, dies at age 76
  • June 15, 1658
    Aurangzeb, son of Mughal Emperor Shah-Jahan-e-Azam, deposes and imprisons his father, starting his reign lasted for 49 years and considered as an apex of Mughal Empire
  • June 15, 1667
    Jean-Baptiste Denys, a French doctor, performs the first animal to human blood transfusion, transfusing nine ounces of blood from a lamb into 15-year-old boy
  • June 15, 1703
    The Rákóczi Uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy becomes the first significant attempt to topple the rule of Habsburg Austria over Hungary
  • June 15, 1733
    St. Croix island is purchased from the French by the Dutch West India and Guinea Company
  • June 15, 1744
    The warship Centurion under British Commodore George Anson returns to England with a treasure
  • June 15, 1775
    The Second Continental Congress vote unanimously to appoint George Washington head of the Continental Army
  • June 15, 1785
    Two French balloonists, Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and Pierre Romain, die in world's first fatal aviation accident during flight across the English Channel
  • June 15, 1844
    Charles Goodyear receives patent #3633 for the vulcanization of rubber, his process to strengthen rubber
  • June 15, 1846
    The dispute between the United Staes and Great Britain over the Oregon country is settled by treaty, establishing the boundary at the 49th parallel
  • June 15, 1878
    First attempt at motion pictures, using 12 cameras, each taking one picture, is done by Eadweard Muybridge to see if all four of a horse's hooves leave the ground at the same time
  • June 15, 1888
    Wilhelm II becomes emperor of Germany
  • June 15, 1896
    The Meiji Sanriku tsunami, triggered by magnitude 8.5 earthquake, strikes Japan and causes some 27,000 deaths and destroys 170 miles of coastline
  • June 15, 1919
    Lieutenant Arthur Whitten Brown and Captain John Alcock complete the first trans-Atlantic non-stop flight, landing in Ireland
  • June 15, 2000
    The June 15th North–South Joint Declaration is adopted between leaders of North and South Korea

Tuesday, June 13, 2017

June 14

  • June 14, 1645
    Oliver Cromwell's army routes the King's army at Naseby, which markd the decisive turning point in the English Civil War
  • June 14, 1649
    Jesuits set fire to Sainte-Marie among the Hurons in North America, abandoning the settlement created in 1639, due to Iroquois on the warpath against them
  • June 14, 1667
    The Dutch fleet burn 3 ships and capture the English flagship near the River Medway during the Second Anglo-Dutch War
  • June 14, 1755
    In England the first edition of Samuel Johnson's "A Dictionary of the English Language", which has 42,773 entries, is published
  • June 14, 1777
    The Continental Congress in Philadelphia adopts the Stars and Stripes, created by Betsy Ross, as the national flag
  • June 14, 1789
    Captain William Bligh of the HMS Bounty arrives in Timor in a small boat
  • June 14, 1800
    French General Napoleon Bonaparte pushes the forces of Austria out of Italy in the Battle of Marengo
  • June 14, 1822
    Charles Babbage, a young Cambridge mathematician, announces the invention of a machine capable of performing simple arithmetic calculations, which could perform up to 60 error-free calculation in 5 minutes, to the Astronomical Society
  • June 14, 1834
    A process for making sandpaper is patented by Isaac Fischer, Springfield, Vermont
  • June 14, 1846
    Americans in Northern California rebel against Mexican authorities in what is called the Bear Flag Revolt and proclaim the Republic of California
  • June 14, 1866
    Prussia attacks Austria after disagreements over the administration of Schleswig-Holstein, starting Austro-Prussian War
  • June 14, 1923
    Bulgarian Prime Minister Aleksandar Stamboliyski is brutally tortured and killed during a military coup
  • June 14, 1935
    Chaco War between Bolivia and Paraguay ends with Paraguayan victory
  • June 14, 1940
    Soviet Premier Josef Stalin sends an ultimatum to Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, making territorial demands
  • June 14, 1943
    The Combined Bomber Offensive launches Operation Pointblank, a strategic bombing campaign against German industry and civilian morale
  • June 14, 1982
    Argentina surrenders to Britain at Port Stanley, Falkland Islands, ending 74-day Falklands War over two British overseas territories in the South Atlantic
  • June 14, 2008
    Expo 2008 is held in Zaragoza, Spain, with the topic of "Water and sustainable development"

Monday, June 12, 2017

June 13

  • June 13, 323 BC
    Alexander the Great dies of fever after a feast in Babylon, which causes wars of the Diadochoi, his generals and friends, in the Empire
  • June 13, 40
    Gnaeus Julius Agricola, a Roman general and governor of Britain, is born
  • June 13, 1381
    During the Revolt of Peasants the rebels enter London and, joined by many local townsfolk, attack the gaols, destroy the Savoy Palace and the Temple Inns of Court
  • June 13, 1886
    King Ludwig II, King of Bavaria, drowns in Lake Starnberg and is found floating dead with his doctor
  • June 13, 1886
    A swift fire destroys Vancouver, Canada, in a time variously reported between twenty and forty-five minutes consuming about 1,000 wooden buildings, virtually the entire city
  • June 13, 1956
    Real Madrid wins the first season of the European Cup, UEFA's premier club football tournament

Sunday, June 11, 2017

June 12

  • June 12, 1665
    England installs a municipal government in New York City, the former Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam
  • June 12, 1701
    The Act of Settlement establishes the order of succession to the English throne and gives English crown to Sophia, Princess of Hanover
  • June 12, 1776
    Virginia's colonial legislature becomes the first to adopt a Bill of Rights which grants every individual the right to the enjoyment of life and liberty and to acquire and possess property
  • June 12, 1792
    George Vancouver discovers site of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • June 12, 1849
    Gas mask is patented by Lewis Haslett
  • June 12, 1898
    Emilio Aguinaldo, rebel leader and the first president, proclaims Philippine independence from Spain
  • June 12, 1944
    Germany launches the first V-1 flying bombs against Britain: from 55 launch sites, seven are able to launch a total of ten flying bombs during the night, of which three reach England
  • June 12, 1963
    African-American civil rights leader Medgar Evers, aged 37, is gunned down in the driveway of his home in Jackson, Mississippi, United States
  • June 12, 1964
    South African justice Quartus de Wet sentences anti-apartheid politician Nelson Mandela and two of his co-accused to life imprisonment
  • June 12, 1967
    Six-Day War between Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria ends with conquest of Sinai Peninsula and the West Bank of the Jordan River by Israel
  • June 12, 1982
    Israel invades Lebanon after an attempt of Abu Nidal Organization to assassinate Shlomo Argov, Israel's ambassador to the United Kingdom
  • June 12, 1987
    During a visit to Berlin, Germany, U.S. President Ronald Reagan challenges Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall
  • June 12, 1991
    Boris Yeltsin is elected President of Russia, the largest and most populous of the fifteen Soviet republics
  • June 12, 1997
    The Globe Theater, a theatre in London associated with William Shakespeare, is reopened by Queen Elizabeth II
  • June 12, 1999
    NATO-led United Nations peacekeeping forces KFOR enter the province of Kosovo in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
  • June 12, 2008
    A public vote in Ireland on the European Union's Lisbon treaty results in a "no" decision, by 53.4 percent to 46.6, while all members of the European Union must ratify the treaty for it to take effect
  • June 12, 2009
    Official results of presidential election in Iran show Mahmoud Ahmadinejad defending his re-election with 62.6 percent of votes which lead to a series of sustained protests

Saturday, June 10, 2017

June 11

  • June 11, 1719
    Spanish attempt to restart the Jacobite rebellion fails after Scottish rebels, aided by Spanish troops, who are defeated at Glen Shiel surrender
  • June 11, 1727
    George I dies on a journey to Hanover, George II becomes king of England
  • June 11, 1742
    Austria cedes most of Silesia to Prussia by Treaty of Breslau, ending the First Silesian War
  • June 11, 1770
    Captain James Cook, commander of the British ship Endeavour, discovers the Great Barrier Reef off Australia by running onto it
  • June 11, 1795
    In Tripoli Pasha Yusuf Karamanli deposes his older brother Hamet in a bloodless coup in Ottoman Tripolitania
  • June 11, 1798
    Napoleon captures Malta on his way to Egypt and expels the Knights Hospitaller of Malta from their base
  • June 11, 1858
    Saint Isaac's Cathedral, the largest orthodox basilica, built by the French-born architect Auguste de Montferrand in Saint Petersburg, is opened
  • June 11, 1898
    Guangxu Emperor of China began Hundred Days' Reform in effort to modernize China, but conservative forces soon squelch the attempt
  • June 11, 1901
    Cook Islands are annexed and proclaimed part of New Zealand
  • June 11, 1935
    Edwin Armstrong demonstrates FM broadcasting, broadcasting technology that uses the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave, for the first time
  • June 11, 1963
    Thich Quảng Duc, Buddhist monk, immolates himself on a street in Saigon as a protest against the persecution of Buddhists by the South Vietnamese government
  • June 11, 1975
    A democratic and republican Constitution of Greece is promulgated
  • June 11, 2008
    Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is launched
  • June 11, 2009
    The World Health Organization declares the H1N1 influenza has reached the pandemic level, the first time it has called a global flu epidemic in 41 years

Friday, June 9, 2017

June 10

  • June 10, 1190
    Frederick I Barbarossa, king of Germany and Italy and the Holy Roman Empire, drowns crossing the Saleph River while leading an army of the Third Crusade which causes disintegration of German crusader army
  • June 10, 1358
    The leader of the Peasant Jacquerie Guillaume Cale is captured
  • June 10, 1605
    False Dmitriy I, an impostors, who claims himself to be the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible, tsarevitch Dmitriy Ivanovich, is crowned Russian tsar for first time
  • June 10, 1610
    First Dutch settlers arrive from New Jersey, to colonize Manhattan Island
  • June 10, 1692
    Bridget Bishop is hanged in Salem for witchcraft which becomes the first official execution of the Salem witch trials, a series of prosecutions of people during which twenty people were executed and 150 others imprisoned
  • June 10, 1752
    Benjamin Franklin flies a kite during a thunderstorm and collects a charge in a Leyden jar when the kite is struck by lightning, enabling him to demonstrate the electrical nature of lightning
  • June 10, 1776
    The Continental Congress appoint a committee to write a Declaration of Independence
  • June 10, 1861
    The Virginia village of Big Bethel becomes the site of the first major land battle of the Civil War and private Henry L. Wyatt becomes the first Confederate soldier killed in a Civil War battle
  • June 10, 1916
    Great Arab Revolt is begun by the Sherif Hussein bin Ali with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Turks and creating a single unified Arab state spanning from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen
  • June 10, 1924
    Giacomo Matteotti, Italian socialist deputy, is assassinated by fascists
  • June 10, 1940
    Italy declares war on Britain and France
  • June 10, 1947
    Swedish aircraft company Saab introduces its first car, the Saab 92, featured front-wheel drive, two doors, green paint
  • June 10, 1982
    Israeli troops reach outskirts of Beirut after the invasion of Lebanon
  • June 10, 1997
    Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot orders the killing of his defense chief, Son Sen, and 11 of Sen's family members, before Pol Pot flees his northern stronghold
  • June 10, 1999
    NATO suspends its air strikes after Slobodan Milosvic agrees to withdraw Serbian forces from Kosovo, marking end of Kosovo War and the Yugoslav Wars
  • June 10, 2002
    In the United Kingdom, Kevin Warwick carries out the first direct electronic communication experiment between the nervous systems of two humans

Thursday, June 8, 2017

June 9

  • June 9, 53 BC
    Parthians crush Roman army at battle of Carrhae, killing general Marcus Licinius Crassus
  • June 9, 68
    Nero, Roman Emperor, commits suicide, ending the Julio-Claudian Dynasty
  • June 9, 922
    French chose Robert I as King of France
  • June 9, 1064
    Ferdinand I, the Count of Castile, conquers the city of Coimbra, modern-day Portugal
  • June 9, 1456
    Pope Callixtus III excommunicates the apparition of Halley's Comet, believing it to be an ill omen for the Christian defenders of Belgrade from the besieging armies of the Ottoman Empire
  • June 9, 1660
    Louis XIV marries Maria Teresa, the daughter of Philip IV of Spain, as part of the Treaty of the Pyrenees
  • June 9, 1732
    Royal charter for Georgia is granted to British general James Oglethorpe by George II, for whom the colony is named
  • June 9, 1940
    King Haakon VI of Norway flees to London, England after Norway falls to German forces
  • June 9, 1955
    "Rock Around the Clock by Bill Haley and His Comets" becomes the first Rock & Roll song to top the U.S. record charts, bringing rock and roll to the American mainstream
  • June 9, 2008
    Afghan and British forces uncover a stash of 237 tonnes of hashish in Kandahar province of Afghanistan, believed to be the world's biggest seizure of drugs by weight

Wednesday, June 7, 2017

June 8

  • June 8, 68
    Galba, a commander of Roman forces in Spain, assumes the title of Caesar beginning a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors
  • June 8, 452
    Attila, military leader of Huns and one of the greatest of the barbarian rulers, invades Italy
  • June 8, 632
    Mohammed, the founder of Islam and unifier of Arabia, dies, and Abu Bakr, his father-in-law, becomes the first Caliph of Rashidun Caliphate, the term comprising the first four "Rightly Guided" caliphs in Islam's history
  • June 8, 793
    Vikings, seafaring north Germanic people, raid the Northumbrian coast in England and sack the city of Lindisfarne, beginning the Viking Age of Scandinavian history
  • June 8, 1675
    Three Wampanoag Indians are hanged in Plymouth, Massachusetts for the recent murder of John Sassamon, an advisor to Metacom, a Native American Christian convert, triggering King Philip's War
  • June 8, 1783
    Laki Volcano in southern Iceland begins 18-month eruption, pumping more ash into the atmosphere than any previous volcano in recorded history and wiping out 75% of the crops, which led to a severe famine that killed some 10,000 people or 20% of the population
  • June 8, 1815
    The Congress of Vienna ends with creation of German Confederation, a loose association of 39 German states in Central Europe
  • June 8, 1861
    One the second referendum Tennessee vote to secede from the Union and join the Confederacy, becoming the last state to do so
  • June 8, 1869
    Ives W McGaffey of Chicago patents first vacuum cleaner, working with a belt driven fan cranked by hand
  • June 8, 1906
    Antiquities Act, an act giving the President of the United States the authority to restrict the use of particular public land owned by the federal government, is signed by Theodore Roosevelt
  • June 8, 1948
    Texaco Star Theater, one of the first successful examples of American television broadcasting, hosted by an American comedian Milton Berle, starts
  • June 8, 1949
    English novelist George Orwell publishes his dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, in which describes totalitarian practices
  • June 8, 2009
    American car-maker General Motors files for bankruptcy, the third-largest in U.S. history and the largest ever in United States manufacturing, forcing the United States government provide US$30 billion of additional taxpayer funds to restructure

Tuesday, June 6, 2017

June 7

  • June 7, 1494
    Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas and agree to divide the World outside of Europe between themselves along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, a Portuguese colony off the west coast of Africa
  • June 7, 1520
    Field of the Cloth of Gold; Fabulous meeting between Francis I of France and Henry VIII of England
  • June 7, 1546
    The Treaty of Ardres ends the war between France and England
  • June 7, 1654
    Louis XIV is crowned King of France in Rheims
  • June 7, 1692
    An earthquake at Port Royal, Jamaica, causes a landslide within the harbor, generates a tsunami, and destroys ninety percent of the buildings in the city, killing approximately 2,000 people
  • June 7, 1753
    Britain's King George II gives his assent to an Act of Parliament establishing the British Museum
  • June 7, 1769
    Daniel Boone, an American pioneer explorer, first begins to explore the Bluegrass State of Kentucky
  • June 7, 1832
    The British Parliament passes the Great Reform Act which increases the number of people who are eligible to vote
  • June 7, 1848
    Paul Gauguin, a French post-impressionist painter, is born in Paris
  • June 7, 1905
    In a session of the Norwegian parliament, a unanimous vote proclaims that "the union with Sweden under one king is dissolved in consequence of the king's ceasing to function as king of Norway", marking independence of Norway
  • June 7, 1929
    Independent State of Vatican City comes into existence
  • June 7, 1942
    Americans destroy 4 Japanese carriers, 248 carrier-based aircraft and kills 3,057 at the Battle of Midway, the most important naval battle of the Pacific Campaign of World War II
  • June 7, 1991
    Ten-Day War in Slovenia begins the Yugoslav Wars

Monday, June 5, 2017

June 6

  • June 6, 1002
    German king Henry II is crowned by Archbishop of Mainz at Mainz, the first time when a German king was crowned outside Aachen Cathedral since Emperor Otto I
  • June 6, 1134
    Norbert of Xanten, founder of the Premonstratensian order, dies
  • June 6, 1523
    Sweden gains independence from the Kalmar Union and a member of noble family Gustav Vasa is elected Gustavus I of Sweden
  • June 6, 1674
    Shivaji, an aristocrat of the clan within the Maratha Kshatriya culture, crowns himself King of India, founding Maratha Empire in Indian subcontinent
  • June 6, 1683
    The Ashmolean Museum, the world's first university museum, is opened in Oxford to house natural-history artifacts given to Oxford University by Elias Ashmole
  • June 6, 1698
    Streltsy, the Russian regiments, remove their commanding officers and make their way to Moscow, beginning Streltsy Uprising against military service hardships and harassment
  • June 6, 1719
    The first slaves, over five hundred black slaves coming from Africa, arrive in Louisiana on two French ships, the Du Maine and the Aurore arrive in Louisiana, starting expansion of slavery
  • June 6, 1772
    Haitian explorer Jean Baptiste-Pointe DuSable settles Chicago
  • June 6, 1809
    Sweden establish new constitution, which establishes a separation of powers between the King and the legislative branch, the Riksdag of the Estates
  • June 6, 1844
    YMCA, the Young Men's Christian Association, is founded in London, England
  • June 6, 1882
    An electric iron, weighed almost 7 kilograms, is patented by Henry W. Seely in New York City
  • June 6, 1918
    Battle of Belleau Wood becomes the first United States victory of the First World War
  • June 6, 1925
    Walter Percy Chrysler founds the Chrysler Corporation
  • June 6, 1944
    About 155,000 Allied troops land 90 km of Normandy coastline in France during the D-Day, beginning the invasion of German-occupied western Europe
  • June 6, 1946
    National Basketball Association, the premier men's professional basketball league in the world, is founded
  • June 6, 1967
    Six-day war between Israel and Arab neighbors begins
  • June 6, 1984
    Indian troops storm the Golden Temple at Amritsar, the Sikhs' holiest shrine, killing an estimated 2000 people
  • June 6, 1993
    Mongolia holds its first direct presidential elections
  • June 6, 2002
    An asteroid or comet estimated at 5-10 metres in diameter explodes over the Mediterranean Sea between Greece and Libya with an estimated force slightly more powerful than the Nagasaki atomic bomb
  • June 6, 2013
    American Edward Snowden releases classified documents concerning mass surveillance by a U.S. government and flees the country, later being granted temporary asylum in Russia