Tuesday, May 30, 2017

May 31

  • May 31, 1223
    A coalition of several Rus' principalities is decisively defeated by the Mongol invaders under the command of generals Jebe and Subutai near the Kalka River in modern-day Ukraine
  • May 31, 1433
    Sigismund is crowned Holy Roman Emperor of Rome
  • May 31, 1469
    Manuel I of Portugal, king of Portugal, is born
  • May 31, 1495
    Emperor Maximilian, Pope Alexander VI, Milan, King Ferdinand, Isabella and Venice sign anti-French Saint League
  • May 31, 1564
    Lübeck and Denmark beat Sweden at Gotland during Northern Seven Years' War
  • May 31, 1659
    Dutch Republic, England and France sign Treaty of The Hague during Second Northern War
  • May 31, 1740
    Frederick William I of Prussia, king of Prussia, dies at age 51, and his son Frederick the Great comes to power in Prussia
  • May 31, 1831
    Captain John Ross, an English explorer, identifies the magnetic north pole on the west coast of the Boothia Peninsula, Netsilik territory
  • May 31, 1832
    Évariste Galois, a French mathematician and radical Republican, who developed a general theory of equations, dies from wounds suffered in a duel at age 20
  • May 31, 1838
    The Federal Republic of Central America federation is dissolved as the congress meets to declare that the provinces were free to create their own independent republics
  • May 31, 1859
    The tower clock known as Big Ben, located at the top of Elizabeth Tower at the north end of the Palace of Westminster, rings out over the Houses of Parliament in London for the first time
  • May 31, 1862
    At the Battle of Seven Pines, McClellan defeat the Confederates outside of Richmond
  • May 31, 1879
    First electric railway opens at Berlin Trades Exposition, Germany
  • May 31, 1889
    Johnstown, Pennsylvania is destroyed by a massive flood after the South Fork Dam across a tributary of the Little Conemaugh River collapsed under pressure from the rain-swollen Lake Conemaugh killing 2,209 people in a flood and related fire
  • May 31, 1889
    Johnstown, Pennsylvania is destroyed by a massive flood after the South Fork Dam across a tributary of the Little Conemaugh River collapsed under pressure from the rain-swollen Lake Conemaugh killing 2,209 people in a flood and related fire
  • May 31, 1891
    Work on Trans-Siberian Railway, the longest railway line in the world, connecting Moscow with the Sea of Japan, begins
  • May 31, 1902
    Second Boer War between the British Empire and the Afrikaans-speaking Dutch settlers, which has cost around 75,000 lives, ends leaving the Transvaal and the Orange Free State as colonies of the British Empire
  • May 31, 1910
    The Union of South Africa is formed, incorporating Cape Colony, Natal, Orange Free State, and Transvaal
  • May 31, 1915
    An LZ-38 Zeppelin makes first zeppelin air raid on London, England, killing 7 and injuring 35 people during the first bombing raid
  • May 31, 1937
    German cruiser Deutschland bomb Almería, Spain during Spanish Civil War
  • May 31, 1943
    Japanese forces are driven from Aleutian Islands, Alaska
  • May 31, 1961
    South Africa becomes a republic following a referendum in which white voters narrowly voted in favour thereof
  • May 31, 1970
    A kilometer wide avalanche mass of ice, mud and rock, triggered by an earthquake in Peru, advances about 18 km and leads to more than 20,000 death
  • May 31, 1988
    U.S. President Ronald Reagan addresses 600 Moscow State University students, during his visit to the Soviet Union
  • May 31, 1997
    Official opening of the Confederation Bridge, between Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick, Canada, the world's longest bridge spanning ice covered waters

Monday, May 29, 2017

May 30

  • May 30, 1381
    Peasants' Revolt begins in Essex, England due to the high taxes resulting from the conflict with France during the Hundred Years War
  • May 30, 1416
    Jerome of Prague, a Czech church reformer and one of the chief followers of Jan Hus, is burned as a heretic at the Council of Constance
  • May 30, 1431
    Joan of Arc, the leader of the French army during Hundred Years War, condemned as a heretic by an English-backed church court, is burned at the stake in Rouen, France, at age 19
  • May 30, 1434
    An army of Utraquists and Catholics, called the Bohemian League, defeat the radical Taborites and Orphans, led by Prokop the Great and Prokop the Lesser, who both fell in the battle of of Lipany, which marks the end of the Hussite wars
  • May 30, 1498
    Columbus departs with six ships for third trip to America
  • May 30, 1536
    English king Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour
  • May 30, 1588
    The Spanish Armada of 130 ships with 30,000 men under Alonso Pérez de Guzmán leaves Lisbon for England
  • May 30, 1635
    Emperor Ferdinand II and Electorate of Saxony representing most of the Protestant states of the Holy Roman Empire sign Peace of Prague, which effectively beings to an end the civil war aspect of the Thirty Years' War
  • May 30, 1814
    In Paris, France, the Treaty of Paris is signed, bringing peace between Great Britain and her allies and France and returning France to its 1792 borders
  • May 30, 1848
    Mexico ratifies the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ending Mexican–American War and giving US New Mexico, California and parts of Nevada, Utah, Arizona and Colorado in return for $15 million
  • May 30, 1854
    The Kansas-Nebraska Act, passed by the US Congress, repeals the Missouri Compromise and allows people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within their borders, opens north slavery
  • May 30, 1866
    The Bartered Bride, the comic opera written by Bedřich Smetana, the father of Czech national music, is first performed at the Provisional Theatre, Prague
  • May 30, 1868
    The United States establish Memorial Day, initially Decoration Day, to honor Union soldiers killed in the Civil War, later expanded to honor all soldiers killed in the service of the country
  • May 30, 1896
    1,389 people die during a human stampede on Khodynka Field in Moscow, Russia during the festivities following the coronation of the last Russian Emperor Nicholas II
  • May 30, 1942
    1047 bombers attack Cologne, dropping 915 tons of incendiaries and 840 tons of high explosives during Operation Millennium with 41 aircraft as total loss of British planes
  • May 30, 1968
    French president Charles de Gaulle dissolves the National Assembly and calls for new parliamentary elections as a result of May 1968 protests in France
  • May 30, 1975
    European Space Agency, an intergovernmental organization dedicated to the exploration of space, forms

Sunday, May 28, 2017

May 29

  • May 29, 1176
    At the Battle of Legnano, the cavalry of Frederick Barbarossa is defeated by the infantry of the Lombard League
  • May 29, 1453
    Constantinople falls to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II and the last reigning Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos is killed, marking end of the Byzantine Empire
  • May 29, 1555
    Peace of Amasya, singed between Shah Tahmasp and Suleiman the Magnificent, ends Ottoman–Safavid War and gives most of Iraq, including Baghdad, to the Ottoman Empire, while the Persians retain north-western territories in the Caucasus
  • May 29, 1652
    English Admiral Robert Blake drives out Dutch fleet under Lieutenant-Admiral Tromp during the First Anglo-Dutch War
  • May 29, 1660
    English King Charles II, returning from exile, lands at Dover ending the Puritan Commonwealth of England and bringing the monarchy back, which becomes known as the English Restoration
  • May 29, 1677
    King Charles II and 12 Virginia Indian chiefs sign a treaty that establish a 3-mile non-encroachment zone around Indian land
  • May 29, 1692
    An English and Dutch fleet beat France near Barfleur
  • May 29, 1765
    Patrick Henry, an American attorney, denounces the Stamp Act before Virginia's House of Burgesses during his speech "Give me liberty, or give me death!"
  • May 29, 1790
    Rhode Island, the state largely founded by Baptists fleeing persecution in Massachusetts, becomes the last of the 13 original colonies to ratify the United States Constitution
  • May 29, 1831
    Great Bosnian uprising against Ottoman rule occurs
  • May 29, 1851
    Freed slave and abolitionist Sojourner Truth attends a national women's convention in Akron, Ohio, where she makes her famous anti-slavery speech "Ain't I a Woman?"
  • May 29, 1874
    The present constitution of Switzerland, which introduces the facultative referendum for laws at the federal level, takes effect
  • May 29, 1919
    Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity is tested and confirmed by Arthur Eddington's observation of a total solar eclipse in Principe and by Andrew Crommelin in Sobral, Brazil
  • May 29, 1953
    Edmund Hillary, a New Zealand mountaineer, and Tenzing Norgay from Nepal become first to reach peak of Mount Everest in Nepal, the highest mountain on earth
  • May 29, 1982
    In the Battle of Goose Green, British paratroopers defeat a larger force of Argentine troops in the first land battle of the Falklands War
  • May 29, 1990
    Boris Yeltsin is elected Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR
  • May 29, 1999
    Nigeria terminates military rule, and the Nigerian Fourth Republic is established with Olusegun Obasanjo as president
  • May 29, 2005
    A French referendum on the draft European Union constitution votes 55 percent to reject it

Saturday, May 27, 2017

May 28

  • May 28, 1156
    King of Sicily William I beats Byzantine fleet in the Battle at Brindisi
  • May 28, 1539
    Hernando de Soto sails from Cuba to Florida with 13 pigs to help sustain his 700 men on his gold-hunting expedition
  • May 28, 1608
    L'Arianna, one of the earliest operas of the Baroque period written by Italian composer and singer Claudio Monteverdi, is performed as part of the musical festivities for a royal wedding at the court of Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga in Mantua
  • May 28, 1825
    Coronation of French king Charles X, the surviving brother of guillotined Louis XVI, occurs in Reims
  • May 28, 1830
    United States Congress passes Indian Removal Act, which authorizes Indian removal from all states to western prairie and authorizes President Andrew Jackson to negotiate with Indian tribes
  • May 28, 1871
    Paris Commune is put down after the last French communards of the Paris commune are shot against the Mur des Federes in Pere Lachaise cemetery by troops from Versailles
  • May 28, 1905
    Japanese fleet destroys Russian East Sea fleet in Straits of Tushima, which becomes decisive sea battle of Russo-Japanese War
  • May 28, 1926
    Military coup by General Manuel Gomes da Costa installs dictatorship in Portugal
  • May 28, 1937
    Neville Chamberlain becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
  • May 28, 1964
    Palestine National Congress forms the Palestine Liberation Organization in Jerusalem, with purpose to create an independent State of Palestine
  • May 28, 1987
    A 19-year-old German, Mathias Rust, is immediately detained after he flies a small private plane through Russian security without clearance and lands on Red Square in Moscow
  • May 28, 1995
    Neftegorsk, Russia is hit by a 7.6 magnitude earthquake, killing at least 2000 people and nearly completely destroying the city

Friday, May 26, 2017

May 27

  • May 27, 1564
    John Calvin, one of the dominant figures of the Protestant Reformation, dies in Geneva
  • May 27, 1629
    The Treaty of Lübeck is signed between Denmark and the Holy Roman Empire
  • May 27, 1644
    After decisive victory at the Shanhai Pass, the Manchu, the people from Northeastern China, conquer China ending the Ming Dynasty and establish subsequent Qing Dynasty, which rule until 1912
  • May 27, 1647
    Alse Young becomes first woman known to be executed as a witch in the thirteen American colonies
  • May 27, 1679
    Habeas Corpus Act, a procedural device to force the courts to examine the lawfulness of a prisoner's detention, passes in England
  • May 27, 1703
    Tsar Peter the Great founds the city of Saint Petersburg, the capital of Russia until 1918, on small Hare Island by the north bank of the Neva River ceded by Sweden during the Great Northern War
  • May 27, 1738
    Turkish troops occupy city of Ochakiv
  • May 27, 1895
    British inventor Birt Acres patents the first British 35 mm moving picture camera
  • May 27, 1930
    The Chrysler Building, 319 meters tall skyscraper on the east side of Manhattan, opens to the public and becomes the tallest man-made structure in the world
  • May 27, 1931
    Auguste Piccard and Paul Kipfer make first flight into stratosphere, by balloon and gather substantial data on the upper atmosphere, as well as measure cosmic rays
  • May 27, 1937
    In California, USA, the Golden Gate Bridge officially opens to pedestrian traffic, becoming the world's longest span
  • May 27, 1939
    DC Comics publishes its second superhero, "Batman"
  • May 27, 1940
    Belgium surrenders to Germany
  • May 27, 1942
    Jan Kubiš and Josef Gabcik, part of a Czechoslovak commando team from England, make an assassination attempt on Reinhard Heydrich, who is wounded by grenade shrapnel, and later dies of the wound, in Prague
  • May 27, 1949
    Chinese Red army occupies Shanghai during Chinese Civil War
  • May 27, 1952
    European Defense Community, an international organization to form a pan-European defense force, is formed
  • May 27, 1952
    The first effective vaccine against poliomyelitis, an viral infectious disease, is developed by Jonas Salk
  • May 27, 1969
    Walt Disney World construction begins in Bay Lake, Florida, United States
  • May 27, 1977
    Two Boeing 747 passenger aircrafts collide on the runway of Los Rodeos Airport on the Spanish island of Tenerife, one of the Canary Islands, becoming the deadliest accident in aviation history with a number of 583 fatalities
  • May 27, 1994
    Alexander Solzhenitsyn, a Russian novelist, returns to Russia after 20 years in exile
  • May 27, 1996
    Russian President Boris Yeltsin meets with Chechnyan rebels for the first time and negotiates a cease-fire in the war, marking end of First Chechen War
  • May 27, 1999
    The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in The Hague, Netherlands indicts Slobodan Milosevic and four others for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Kosovo
  • May 27, 2008
    Nepal's constituent assembly in Kathmandu, mostly consisting of communist parties, votes 597 to 4 to abolish 240 years of royal rule, becoming a democratic republic nation

Thursday, May 25, 2017

May 26

  • May 26, 451
    Army of Sassanid Empire defeat united Armenian forces at the Battle of Avarair with strategic victory for Armenians
  • May 26, 1637
    150 Puritans lead by Captain John Mason with 60 Mohegan warriors attack fortified Pequot village at Mystic, in Connecticut River Valley, North America and burn the entire village, shoot fleeing escapers, killing about 700 men, women, children in under hour
  • May 26, 1736
    British and Chickasaw Indians, supported by the British, defeat a combined force of French soldiers and Chocktaw Indians at the Battle of Ackia, thus opening the region to English settlement
  • May 26, 1798
    British kill about 500 Irish insurgents at the Battle of Tara
  • May 26, 1805
    Napoleon Bonaparte is crowned king of Italy
  • May 26, 1805
    Lewis and Clark first see the Rocky Mountains
  • May 26, 1834
    Portuguese Civil war between progressive constitutionalists and authoritarian absolutists ends with restore of constitutional monarchy and exile of absolutist Miguel I
  • May 26, 1860
    Giuseppe Garibaldi occupies Palermo, Italy during Expedition of the Thousand
  • May 26, 1868
    Michael Barrett, Irish nationalist, is executed for his part in the Clerkenwell bombing, which becomes the last British public execution
  • May 26, 1868
    The United States Senate impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson ends with his acquittal as the Senate fell one vote short of the two-thirds majority required for conviction
  • May 26, 1879
    Treaty of Gandermack is signed between Great Britain and Afghanistan and cedes various frontier areas to Britain
  • May 26, 1894
    Emanuel Lasker, a German mathematician and World Chess Champion for 27 years, becomes World Champion chess player for the first time
  • May 26, 1896
    The Dow Jones Industrial Average, an index of 12 industrial companies, is first published
  • May 26, 1918
    Democratic Republic of Georgia declares independence from Russia
  • May 26, 1924
    United States President Calvin Coolidge signs Immigration Act of 1924, significantly restricting immigration from Easter and Southern Europe and prohibiting the immigration of Arabs, East Asians, and Indians
  • May 26, 1948
    South Africa elects a nationalist government in the parliamentary election, which begin system of racial segregation policy known as apartheid
  • May 26, 1965
    Revised International Convention on Safety of Life at Sea takes effect
  • May 26, 1966
    Guyana, formerly British Guiana, declares independence from United Kingdom
  • May 26, 1971
    Soviet Union's Concorde, TU-144, makes its first appearance
  • May 26, 1972
    US President Richard Nixon and Soviet Leader Leonid Brezhnev signs Strategic Arms Limitation Talks accord
  • May 26, 1981
    The Italian government resigns over its links to the fascist Masonic cell Propaganda Due
  • May 26, 1986
    The European Community adopts the European flag
  • May 26, 2010
    Market capitalization of Apple, US$222 billion, passes Microsoft for the first time since December 19,1989, making Apple stock more than 10 times worth what they were 10 years ago, whereas Microsoft stock is down 20 percent over the same time period
  • May 26, 2011
    Former Bosnian Serb Army commander Ratko Mladic, wanted for genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity, is arrested in Serbia

Wednesday, May 24, 2017

May 25

  • May 25, 1521
    Charles V, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, officially declares Martin Luther a criminal and heretic for refusing to recant at the Diet of Worms
  • May 25, 1624
    The Parliament of England issues Statute of Monopolies, the first statutory expression of English patent law
  • May 25, 1659
    Richard Cromwell resigns as English Lord Protector
  • May 25, 1720
    Great Plague of Marseille, which kills 100,000 people in the city, begins
  • May 25, 1810
    Argentina declares independence from Napoleonic Spain
  • May 25, 1812
    92 miners are killed during a series of coal mine explosions, which take place around the Felling Colliery in Durhamshire, England
  • May 25, 1844
    The first telegraphed news dispatch, sent from Washington, D.C., to Baltimore, appears in the Baltimore "Patriot"
  • May 25, 1887
    In France, a gas lamp at the Paris Opera catches fir; 200 die
  • May 25, 1895
    Playwright Oscar Wilde is convicted of a morals charge in London and is sentenced to two years in prison
  • May 25, 1911
    Revolution in Mexico overthrows President Porfirio Díaz
  • May 25, 1915
    Second Battle of Ypres ends leaving 105,000 casualties
  • May 25, 1945
    Arther C Clark, a British science fiction writer, proposes relay satellites in geosynchronous orbit
  • May 25, 1946
    The United Nations approve the end of the British Mandate and recognize Transjordan as an independent sovereign kingdom Jordan
  • May 25, 1961
    United States President John Kennedy appeals to Congress that the nation should commit to "landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to Earth" by the end of the decade
  • May 25, 1963
    Organization for African Unity is formed by Chad, Mauritania, and Zambia
  • May 25, 1977
    "Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope", the first release in the Star Wars saga created by American filmmaker George Lucas, is released
  • May 25, 2000
    Israel withdraws military forces from southern Lebanon after 22 years of occupation
  • May 25, 2002
    China Airlines Flight 611 breaks up near the Penghu Islands at Taiwan Strait, killing all 225 people on board

Tuesday, May 23, 2017

May 24

  • May 24, 1153
    Malcolm IV, also known as Malcolm the Maiden, becomes king of Scotland
  • May 24, 1300
    King Philip IV of France occupies Flanders. Guy, Count of Flanders is captured
  • May 24, 1370
    Hanseatic League and Danish king Valdemar IV sign peace treaty ending the war and giving an effective trade and political monopoly in Scandinavia to the League
  • May 24, 1543
    Nicolaus Copernicus, a mathematician and astronomer, dies in Poland
  • May 24, 1658
    Battle of the Dunes ends with a victory of the French army and their Commonwealth of England allies over the Spanish army and their English Royalist and French Fronde rebels
  • May 24, 1667
    French troops invade the Southern Netherlands beginning the War of Devolution between France and Spain as a result of the claim by Louis XIV that the ownership of the Spanish Netherlands devolved to his wife upon the death of her father, Philip IV of Spain
  • May 24, 1689
    English Parliament passes the Act of Toleration, protecting Protestants, but Roman Catholics are specifically excluded from exemption
  • May 24, 1798
    Believing that a French invasion of Ireland is imminent, Irish nationalists rise up against the British occupation
  • May 24, 1822
    At Battle of Pichincha in Ecuador General Antonio José de Sucre win a decisive victory against Spanish forces
  • May 24, 1823
    The Liverpool and Manchester Railway Company is founded to build a railway between the North West England towns of Liverpool and Manchester in the United Kingdom, the first railway to rely exclusively on steam power
  • May 24, 1844
    Samuel Morse sends the first telegraphic message via publicly funded telegraph line in the world between Washington, DC and Baltimore ushering in the age of the telegraph
  • May 24, 1856
    The Pottawatomie Massacre takes place in Kansas when John Brown, American abolitionist and horse thief, preside over the hacking to death with machetes of five unarmed pro-slavery Border Ruffians in Potawatomi, Kansas
  • May 24, 1883
    The Brooklyn Bridge, one of the oldest suspension bridges, is dedicated by President Chester Arthur and New York Govener Grover Cleveland, and officially opened to traffic linking the boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn
  • May 24, 1923
    Irish Civil War ends with victory of Pro-Treaty
  • May 24, 1993
    Eritrea gains independence from Ethiopia
  • May 24, 2006
    East Timor's Foreign Minister José Ramos-Horta officially requests military assistance from the governments of Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Portugal

Monday, May 22, 2017

May 23

  • May 23, 1430
    Joan of Arc is captured at Compiegne, France by the Burgundians, who sell her to the English
  • May 23, 1493
    King Charles VIII and Maximilian I of Austria signs Peace of Senlis, by which Duchy of Burgundy remains in French hands
  • May 23, 1498
    Girolamo Savonarola, dictator of Florence, is tortured and burned by enraged crowd in Florence at age 45
  • May 23, 1524
    Ismail I, the founder of Safavid dynasty, dies and Tahmasp I becomes king
  • May 23, 1536
    Pope Paul III installs Portuguese inquisition
  • May 23, 1568
    Dutch rebels beat Spanish at the Battle at Heiligerlee
  • May 23, 1618
    The Bohemian Revolt and Thirty Years' War begin after Second Prague Defenestration when three opponents of the Reformation are thrown through a window of Prague Castle into the moat
  • May 23, 1667
    King Afonso VI of Portugal flees
  • May 23, 1701
    New York sea captain William Kidd is hanged on the banks of the Thames after being found guilty of piracy and murder
  • May 23, 1706
    At the battle of Ramillies Duke of Marlborough defeats French and 17,000 are killed
  • May 23, 1774
    Chestertown tea party occurs when tea is dumped into Chester River
  • May 23, 1785
    Benjamin Franklin in Paris speaks of his invention of bifocals in a letter to friend and philanthropist George Whatley
  • May 23, 1844
    Persian Prophet the Báb announces his revelation, founding Bábísm and announces to the world of the coming of "He whom God shall make manifest"
  • May 23, 1853
    Buenos Aires gains independence from Argentina
  • May 23, 1871
    In France extremists burn the Tuileries Palace
  • May 23, 1915
    Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary and Germany
  • May 23, 1949
    The Federal Republic of Germany is established on the territory of the Western occupied zones, with Bonn as its capital
  • May 23, 1951
    Seventeen Point Agreement, which incorporates Tibet into People's Republic of China is signed
  • May 23, 1958
    Mao Zedong starts Great Leap Forward movement in China, an economic campaign to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a modern communist society through the process of industrialization and collectivization
  • May 23, 1960
    Israel announces capture of German Adolf Eichmann, one of the major organizers of the Holocaust, in Argentina
  • May 23, 1977
    Moluccan extremists hold 105 schoolchildren and 50 others hostage on a hijacked train in Netherlands; children released May 27, siege ends June 11
  • May 23, 1995
    At the Sun World conference in San Francisco, California, Sun Microsystems introduces the Java interactive programming language, named as Oak during development

Sunday, May 21, 2017

May 22

  • May 22, 337
    Emperor of Rome Constantine dies in villa Achyron near Nicomedia, so three his sons Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans, succeed
  • May 22, 1200
    Philip II of France recognizes John's possession of the continental Angevin lands at the peace treaty of Le Goulet
  • May 22, 1246
    Henry Raspe, promoted by Archbishop of Cologne Konrad von Hochstaden, is elected antiking in opposition to Conrad IV of Germany by the Rhenish prelates in France
  • May 22, 1370
    Jews are massacred and expelled from Brussels, Belgium
  • May 22, 1455
    King Henry VI is taken prisoner by the Yorkists, a cadet branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet, at the Battle of St. Albans, the first battle in the 30-year War of the Roses
  • May 22, 1526
    Pope Clement VII, France, Genoa, Venice, Florence and Milan form League of Cognac against Emperor Charles V
  • May 22, 1712
    Emperor Charles VI is crowned king of Hungary
  • May 22, 1762
    Trevi Fountain, one of the most famous fountains in the world, completed by Italian sculptor Pietro Bracci, is officially inaugurated by Pope Clement XIII
  • May 22, 1843
    The first wagon train with over 1,000 settlers and 1,000 head of cattle sets out from Missouri down the Oregon Trail, an east-west wheeled wagon route and emigrant trail connected the Missouri River to valleys in Oregon
  • May 22, 1860
    In Lebanon a small group of Maronites fire on a group of Druzes at the entrance to Beirut, killing one and wounding two, which sparks off a torrent of violence which swept through Lebanon
  • May 22, 1888
    Leroy Buffington, an architect from Minnesota, patents a system to build skyscrapers using load-bearing iron frames
  • May 22, 1939
    At the Reich Chancellory in Berlin, Italian Foreign Minister Count Ciano and German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop sign a ten-year political and military alliance, dubbed the Pact of Steel
  • May 22, 1943
    Stalin disbands Communist International
  • May 22, 1957
    South Africa Government approves race separation in universities
  • May 22, 1960
    A 9.5-magnitude earthquake occurs off the coast of Chile, killing about 1700 and leaving 2 million homeless and becomes the largest earthquake recorded to date
  • May 22, 1973
    At Xerox PARC, Bob Metcalfe invents the Ethernet computer connectivity system, taking the name "Ethernet" based on a discredited physical theory of an existing "ether" in space allowing transmission of light rays from the sun to the Earth
  • May 22, 2001
    The Terraces of the Baha'i Faith, garden terraces around the Shrine of the Báb on Mount Carmel in Haifa, Israel officially open
  • May 22, 2012
    Tokyo Skytree, the tallest self-supporting tower in the world at 634 metres high, is opened to the public
  • May 22, 2014
    The Royal Thai Army overthrows the caretaker government of Niwatthamrong Boonsongpaisan after a failure to resolve the political unrest in Thailand

Saturday, May 20, 2017

May 21

  • May 21, 987
    French King Louis V dies from a fall while hunting, terminating the Carolingian period of Frankish rule
  • May 21, 996
    Otto III is crowned the Roman Emperor by his cousin Pope Gregory V
  • May 21, 1420
    King Charles VI of France signs the Treaty of Troyes that recognizes all the territorial gains of King Henry V of England, gives Henry the daughter of Charles in marriage, and acknowledges Henry as the legitimate heir to the French throne
  • May 21, 1471
    Henry VI, king of England and France, is killed in the tower of London and Edward IV takes the throne
  • May 21, 1535
    Imperial authorities in Antwerp capture and imprison William Tyndale for heresy over his translation of the Bible into English
  • May 21, 1542
    Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto dies while searching for gold along the Mississippi River and is buried by his men in the Mississippi River in what is now Louisiana in order that Indians would not learn of his death, and thus disprove de Soto's claims of divinity
  • May 21, 1674
    General John Sobieski is chosen King of Poland
  • May 21, 1683
    The Society of Suriname, a Dutch private company, is founded by the city of Amsterdam, the Van Aerssen van Sommelsdijck family, and the Dutch West India Company
  • May 21, 1809
    Austrian archduke Charles beats Napoleon at Battle of Aspern-Essling when he was crossing the Danube near Vienna, which becomes the first personally defeat of Napoleon over a decade
  • May 21, 1840
    New Zealand is founded as a British colony since the Treaty of Waitangi is signed by Māori chiefs of New Zealand and representatives of Queen Victoria
  • May 21, 1871
    French government troops enter in Paris and attack the Commune of Paris
  • May 21, 1881
    Clara Barton, a hospital nurse, founds American Red Cross
  • May 21, 1881
    Standard Oil, an American oil producing founded by John D. Rockefeller, becomes the world's first trust, after thirty-seven stockholders convey their shares
  • May 21, 1916
    Britain begins "Summer Time", which becomes the implementation of daylight saving time
  • May 21, 1927
    Charles Lindbergh, an American aviator, becomes the first person who makes solo non-stop transatlantic flight, from New York's Long Island to Le Bourget Field in Paris
  • May 21, 1945
    German war criminal Heinrich Himmler is captured
  • May 21, 1998
    Suharto forced to resign as president of Indonesia after 31-year reign

Friday, May 19, 2017

May 20

  • May 20, 526
    An earthquake kills 250,000 in Syria and the city of Antioch in the Byzantine Empire and causes severe damage to many of the buildings
  • May 20, 685
    Picts, a tribal confederation of Celtic tribes, defeat forces of Northumbria at the Battle of Dun Nechtain ending the dominance of Angles in Northern Britain
  • May 20, 1303
    Treaty of Paris restores Gascony to British setting the stage for the Hundred Years' War
  • May 20, 1347
    Cola di Rienzo, an Italian politician and popular leader, takes the title of tribune in Rome
  • May 20, 1498
    Vasco de Gama, a Portuguese explorer, reaches Kozhikode, India by sea completing his journey that took him around South Africa and opens the Far East to European trade and colonial expansion
  • May 20, 1506
    Christopher Columbus, explorer, dies in poverty in Valladolid, Spain at age 55
  • May 20, 1571
    Pope Pius V completes the Holy League as a united front against the Ottoman Turks
  • May 20, 1631
    Forces of the Holy Roman Empire and the Catholic League under earl Johann Tilly conquer Magdeburg, beginning the subsequent plundering, and the massacre of the inhabitants of the largely Protestant city
  • May 20, 1648
    In Poland King Władysław IV Vasa dies at age 55 and his Jesuit brother takes rule as John II Casimir
  • May 20, 1774
    Britain set procedures of governance in the Province of Quebec by Quebec Act
  • May 20, 1775
    Mecklenburg County, North Carolina becomes the first part of the Thirteen Colonies to declare independence from Great Britain
  • May 20, 1784
    Preliminary signed 2 September 1783 Peace of Paris ends the war between England and Netherlands and ends Fourth Anglo-Dutch War
  • May 20, 1799
    Napoleon Bonaparte orders a withdrawal from his siege of city of Acre in Ottoman Empire due to plague which run through besieging French forces
  • May 20, 1862
    President Lincoln signs the Homestead Act, providing 1 million km of free land to settlers in the West, which officially opens the Nebraska territory for settlement, leading to statehood in 1867
  • May 20, 1867
    Foundation of Royal Albert Hall, a concert hall in London, is laid by Queen Victoria
  • May 20, 1873
    Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis receive a US patent for "Improvement in Fastening Pocket-Openings", work pants reinforced with metal rivets, marking the birth of blue jeans
  • May 20, 1875
    International Bureau of Weights and Measures, an international standards organisation, is established by treaty among 17 nations
  • May 20, 1882
    Triple Alliance between Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary forms
  • May 20, 1902
    Cuba gains independence from the United States after United States military occupation of Cuba ends
  • May 20, 1927
    Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz, modern Saudi Arabia, becomes independent of Great Britain by Treaty of Jeddah between King Abdul Aziz, usually known as Ibn Saud, and the United Kingdom
  • May 20, 1940
    Igor Sikorsky, a Russian American aviation engineer, unveils his helicopter invention
  • May 20, 1941
    Operation Mercury is launched, as German gliders and 7th Airborne Division paratroopers land near principal airports on Crete, with the mission of securing them for transport of 5th Division troops, however many gliders crash, and many paratroopers are shot in the air
  • May 20, 2002
    East Timor regains its independence
  • May 20, 2007
    The ruler of Dubai, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid al-Maktoum makes the largest single charitable donation in modern history, committing 7.41 billion euros to an educational foundation in the Middle East

Thursday, May 18, 2017

May 19

  • May 19, 1536
    Anne Boleyn, the second wife of England's King Henry VIII, being convicted of adultery and incest with her brother, Lord Rochford, is beheaded on Tower Green, the day before Henry VIII's marriage to Jane Seymour
  • May 19, 1565
    The Turkish army of 40,000 men under Suleyman the Magnificent begin 5-month siege of the Knights of Malta, led by Grand Master Jean de la Valette with 2,500 troops at their garrison Fort Saint Elmo
  • May 19, 1568
    Defeated by the Scottish Protestants and escaped to England, Queen of Scotland Mary is imprisoned by English Queen Elizabeth I, who perceives her as a threat
  • May 19, 1608
    The Protestant states form the Evangelical Union of Lutherans and Calvinists under the direction of the elector of Brandenburg
  • May 19, 1635
    Cardinal Richelieu of France declares war on the Hapsburgs in Spain and enters Thirty Years' War as an active combatant
  • May 19, 1643
    A French army destroy Spanish army at the Battle at Rocroi in France during Thirty Years' War, which becomes the turning point of the perceived invincibility of the Spanish Empire
  • May 19, 1643
    Delegates from four New England colonies, Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut and New Harbor, meet in Boston to form New England Confederation
  • May 19, 1690
    English troops of William Phips conquer Port Royal in Acadia near Canada from the French, which becomes the first major engagement of King William's War
  • May 19, 1749
    George II grants a charter to the Ohio Company to settle Ohio Valley
  • May 19, 1792
    Russian army enters Poland
  • May 19, 1793
    Netherlands captures French island of Saint Maarten
  • May 19, 1798
    A French armada of 335 ships carrying nearly 40,000 men set sail for Alexandria, Egypt, which Napoleon plans to conquer
  • May 19, 1919
    Turkish War of Independence begins between the Turkish nationalists and the proxies of the Allies, namely Greece on the Western front and Armenia on the Eastern
  • May 19, 1919
    Mount Kelud in Indonesia erupts, boiling crater lake which breaks through crater wall killing 5,000 people in 104 small villages
  • May 19, 1988
    Carlos Lehder, of Colombia's Medellín drug cartel, is convicted in Florida for smuggling more than three tons of cocaine into US
  • May 19, 2010
    Protests in Bangkok, Thailand end with a bloody military crackdown, killing 91 and leaving more than 2,100 injured

Wednesday, May 17, 2017

May 18

  • May 18, 1096
    Peasant crusaders from France and Germany begin Pogroms of 1096, the first instance of an antisemitism in Europe touched by the First Crusade, murdering thousands of Jews in Germany
  • May 18, 1160
    Eric IX, a King of Sweden, is killed by the Danish lord Magnus Henriksson
  • May 18, 1291
    Egyptian Mamluks destroy Acre after a siege of 43 days ending the existence of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem
  • May 18, 1604
    England and Spain agree sign the Treaty of London ending the 19 year Anglo-Spanish war
  • May 18, 1619
    Hugo Grotius, a Dutch jurist who laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law, is sentenced to life in prison
  • May 18, 1652
    Rhode Island try to enact first law declaring slavery illegal
  • May 18, 1727
    Peter II Alekseyevich is proclaimed Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias after death of Catherine I
  • May 18, 1803
    Britain declares war on France after General Napoleon Bonaparte continues interfering in Italy and Switzerland, ending Peace of Amiens and starting the Napoleonic Wars and War of the Third Coalition
  • May 18, 1804
    The French Senate adopted new national constitution of France, establishing the First French Empire and proclaiming Napoleon Bonaparte emperor
  • May 18, 1810
    May Revolution as part of Latin American wars of independence against Napoleonic Spain begins in Buenos Aires, Argentina, which lead to the establishment of a local government, the Primera Junta
  • May 18, 1830
    Edwin Beard Budding of England signs an agreement for the manufacture of his invention, the lawn mower, in which he adopts the rotary blade in the cloth industry to grass
  • May 18, 1896
    The United States Supreme Court upholds the State of Louisiana Separate Car Act in Plessy vs. Ferguson, and affirms that segregation does not constitute discrimination, establishing the doctrine of "separate but equal"
  • May 18, 1899
    The First Hague Peace Conference, proposed by Nicholas II of Russia, is opened in the Netherlands as 26 nations met to ban the destruction or seizure of enemy property with no military value
  • May 18, 1900
    Tonga becomes a protected state under a Treaty of Friendship with Britain, when European settlers and rival Tongan chiefs tried to oust the second king
  • May 18, 1954
    Supreme Court of the United States unanimously decides the case of Brown v. Board of Education, ordering an end to racial segregation in public schools
  • May 18, 1994
    Food and Drug Administration concludes that Flavr Savr, a genetically modified tomato, is safe for food use, making it the first commercially grown genetically engineered food
  • May 18, 2000
    Boo.com, one of the greatest dot-com busts in history collapses in London after six months, due to lack of funds

Tuesday, May 16, 2017

May 17

  • May 17, 1630
    Italian Jesuit Niccolo Zucchi, becomes the first who see two belts on Jupiter surface
  • May 17, 1642
    Paul de Chomedey, a French military officer, founds the Canadian city of Montreal
  • May 17, 1673
    Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette, a French explores, begin exploring Mississippi
  • May 17, 1733
    England passes Molasses Act, putting high tariffs on rum and molasses imported to the colonies from a country other than British possessions
  • May 17, 1742
    The Prussian victory in the Battle of Chotusitz ends the First Silesian War
  • May 17, 1756
    After a year and a half of undeclared war in North America Britain declares war on France with purpose to conquer Canada, beginning the Seven Years' War in which France, Russia, Austria, Saxony, Sweden and Spain stand against Britain, Prussia and Hanover
  • May 17, 1792
    24 merchants form New York Stock Exchange at Wall Street where they fix rates on commissions on stocks and bonds
  • May 17, 1805
    Mohammed Ali, an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, becomes the new ruler of Egypt starting modernization of the country
  • May 17, 1809
    The Papal States are annexed by France, Pope Pius VII responds by excommunicating Napoleon
  • May 17, 1814
    Norwegian constitution is signed by constituent assembly at Eidsvoll, providing for a limited monarchy
  • May 17, 1845
    The rubber band is patented by British inventor Stephen Perry
  • May 17, 1846
    Saxophone is patents by Belgian musical instrument designer and musician Adolphe Sax
  • May 17, 1865
    International Telecommunication Union established
  • May 17, 1920
    First flight by Dutch airlines Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij, or simply KLM, the oldest airline in the world still operating, takes place
  • May 17, 1983
    Lebanon, Israel, and the United States sign an agreement on Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon ending 1982 Lebanon War begun after repeated actions between the Palestine Liberation Organization and the Israel Defense Forces
  • May 17, 1987
    37 crewmen are killed when Iraqi Exocet missile hits American Destroyer USS Stark during the Iran–Iraq War
  • May 17, 1990
    The World Health Organization removes homosexuality from its list of diseases which marks the beginning of a slow change towards public acceptance of homosexuality
  • May 17, 2007
    The Russian Orthodox Church Abroad and the Moscow Patriarchate re-unite after eighty years of schism

Monday, May 15, 2017

May 16

  • May 16, 1648
    Khmelnytsky's Cossacks beat John II Casimir Vasa at the Battle of Zhovti Vody during Khmelnytsky Uprising
  • May 16, 1795
    The French-backed Batavian Republic in present-day Netherlands is established by treaty of The Hague and cedes to France the territories of Maastricht, Venlo, and Flanders
  • May 16, 1811
    Both Allies and French suffer heavily at Battle of Albuera, which ends with indecisive result
  • May 16, 1833
    Antonio López de Santa Anna, a Mexican politician and general, becomes President of Mexico for the first of eleven non-consecutive occasions
  • May 16, 1862
    Étienne Lenoir, a Belgian engineer, builds first automobile, with a hydrogen gas fuelled one cylinder internal combustion engine
  • May 16, 1881
    World's first electric tram, invented and made of two-decker horse tramway by Ukrainian-born Russian engineer Fyodor Pirotsky, goes into service in Saint Petersburg, Russia
  • May 16, 1884
    Italian inventor Angelo Moriondo is granted the patent of the first espresso coffee machine
  • May 16, 1920
    Spanish bullfighter Joselito, the most famous bullfighters, is fatally gored fighting his last bull
  • May 16, 1929
    The first Academy Awards are presented at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel
  • May 16, 1940
    German troops enter The Hague and Amsterdam, Netherlands
  • May 16, 1960
    Theodore Maiman, an American engineer, operates the first optical laser, a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification, in Malibu, California, United States
  • May 16, 1985
    Group of British scientists, Jonathan Shanklin, Joe Farman and Brian G. Gardiner, publish a paper in journal Nature dedicated to the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole, the first report about ozone depletion
  • May 16, 1989
    Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev and Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping end a 30-year rift when they formally meet in Beijing
  • May 16, 2011
    The European Union agree to a 78-billion euro rescue deal for Portugal, which will be equally split between the European Financial Stabilization Mechanism, the European Financial Stability Facility, and the International Monetary Fund

Sunday, May 14, 2017

May 15

  • May 15, 392
    Valentinian II, emperor of Rome, is found hanged in his residence in Vienne at age 21, in south-eastern France
  • May 15, 756
    The Umayyad Abd al-Rahman I establishes the government in the regions of Iberia and proclaims himself the emir of Cordoba representing a branch from the rest of the Islamic Empire
  • May 15, 1213
    Stephen Langton is chosen Archbishop of Canterbury after some disputes between King John of England and Pope Innocent III
  • May 15, 1525
    A German army under Landgrave Philip I of Hesse surround and slaughter 8,000 peasants at the battle of Frankenhausen ending a peasant revolt led by German theologian Thomas Müntzer
  • May 15, 1602
    Bartholomew Gosnold, English navigator, discovers Cape Cod in modern-day Northeastern United States
  • May 15, 1620
    The Plaza Mayor, a central plaza in the city of Madrid, Spain is opened
  • May 15, 1648
    Spain and Netherlands ratify Peace of Münster, ending Eighty Years' War and recognizing the independence of the Netherlands
  • May 15, 1665
    Pope Alexander VII convicts Jansenism, a Christian theological movement that emphasized original sin, human depravity, the necessity of divine grace, and predestination
  • May 15, 1668
    A private bank is taken over by the Swedish State Government, becoming the Riksbank, the first national bank in the world
  • May 15, 1679
    The Earl of Shaftesbury introduces his Exclusion Bill into Parliament proposing that James, the Catholic brother of King Charles II, be permanently barred from the line of succession to the English throne
  • May 15, 1681
    Canal du Midi, a long canal connecting joining the Atlantic to the Mediterranean, is completed by French engineer Pierre-Paul Riquet
  • May 15, 1718
    James Puckle, a London lawyer, patents world's first machine gun that utilize a revolving block for firing square bullets
  • May 15, 1768
    France purchases Corsica from Genoa by the Treaty of Versailles
  • May 15, 1796
    Napoleon enter the Lombardian capital of Milan in triumph
  • May 15, 1811
    Paraguay gains independence from Spain
  • May 15, 1836
    Francis Baily, an English astronomer, observes "Baily's Beads", a diamond ring effect during annular solar eclipse
  • May 15, 1855
    Paris holds the Exposition Universelle, the second world exposition
  • May 15, 1878
    The Tokyo Stock Exchange, Japan's first public trading institution and the second largest stock exchange in the world now, is formed under the direction of then-Finance Minister Okuma Shigenobu and capitalist advocate Shibusawa Eiichi
  • May 15, 1882
    Emperor Alexander III enacts May Laws, which ban Jews to settle anew outside of towns and boroughs
  • May 15, 1902
    Portugal declares bankrupt causing revolt in Angola, social turmoil and economic disturbances
  • May 15, 1905
    Las Vegas is founded at auctioned land adjacent to the Union Pacific Railroad tracks
  • May 15, 1905
    Las Vegas is founded at auctioned land, adjacent to the Union Pacific Railroad tracks
  • May 15, 1905
    Las Vegas is founded at auctioned land adjacent to the Union Pacific Railroad tracks
  • May 15, 1918
    Finnish Civil War between the forces of the Social Democratic Party commonly called the "Reds", and the forces of the non-socialist, conservative-led Senate, commonly called the "Whites", ends with victory of the latter
  • May 15, 1932
    Inukai Tsuyoshi, premier of Japan, is murdered by reactionary elements of the Imperial Japanese Navy
  • May 15, 1934
    Kārlis Ulmanis, closes all newspapers owned by political parties and suspends civil liberties, making himself fascist dictator of Latvia
  • May 15, 1940
    McDonald's opens its first restaurant, in San Bernardino, California
  • May 15, 1948
    Forces from Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq invade and attack Israel, territory in the former British Mandate, beginning First Arab-Israeli War
  • May 15, 1953
    "The Destroyed City", a memorial to the destruction of the center of the Dutch city of Rotterdam in 1940, made by a Belarusian-born artist Ossip Zadkine, is unveiled
  • May 15, 1955
    Britain, France, United States and USSR sign the Austrian State Treaty restore Austria's independence
  • May 15, 1963
    The final Mercury mission is launched, with astronaut Gordon Cooper - who becomes the first American to spend more than a day in space
  • May 15, 1988
    Soviets begin withdrawal from Afghanistan