Friday, March 31, 2017

April 1

  • April 1, 1778
    Oliver Pollock, a New Orleans businessman, creates "$" symbol
  • April 1, 1826
    Samuel Morey, an American inventor, patents the internal combustion engine, an engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber
  • April 1, 1851
    Rama IV, also known as King Mongkut, succeeds the throne of King of Siam and begins to embrace Western innovations and initiates the modernization of Siam
  • April 1, 1865
    At the Battle of Five Forks in Petersburg, Virginia, General Robert E. Lee begins his final offensive
  • April 1, 1867
    The British government establishes the Straits Settlements, consisted of Singapore, Penang, and Malacca, as a separate Crown Colony
  • April 1, 1873
    The British White Star steamship Atlantic, enroute to New York City from Liverpool with 811 passengers under Captain James Agnew Williams, sinks off Nova Scotia killing 565 people, mostly women and children
  • April 1, 1933
    Germany begins persecution of Jews, boycotting Jewish businesses
  • April 1, 1939
    After three years of Spanish Civil War general Francisco Franco proclaims victory in a radio speech, thus becomes dictator of Spain
  • April 1, 1957
    Trial begins in Budapest, Hungary against participants' Hungarian Uprising
  • April 1, 1966
    China's Cultural Revolution begins in order to impose Maoism as the dominant ideology and to enforce communism in the country by removing capitalist and cultural elements from Chinese society
  • April 1, 1975
    Cambodia President Lon Nol flees for Red Khmer
  • April 1, 1976
    American entrepreneur Steven Jobs and electronics engineer Stephen Wozniak incorporate the Apple Computer Company in California, United States, to sell hand-built personal computer called Apple I
  • April 1, 1979
    Iran officially becomes an Islamic Republic by a 98 percent vote, overthrowing the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and forcing him into exile
  • April 1, 2001
    The Act on the Opening up of Marriage, which allows same-sex couples to legally marry for the first time in the world, goes into effect in the Netherlands

Thursday, March 30, 2017

March 31

  • March 31, 1084
    Anti-pope Clemens crowns German emperor Henry IV
  • March 31, 1492
    King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain issue an edict expelling approximately 100,000 Jews from Spanish soil, except those willing to convert to Christianity
  • March 31, 1683
    Emperor Leopold I and king of Poland, John Sobieski, signs covenant against Turkey
  • March 31, 1774
    English Parliament passes the Boston Port Act, the first bill of the Intolerable Acts, which closes Boston harbor until restitution for the destroyed tea is made
  • March 31, 1790
    In Paris, France, Maximilien de Robespierre is elected president of the Jacobin Club, the most influential political club in the development of the French Revolution
  • March 31, 1814
    Alexander I of Russia enters Paris at the head of an anti-Napoleon coalition
  • March 31, 1840
    American President Martin Van Buren issues an executive order extending the "10-hour system" to all laborers and mechanics employed on federal public works, as the average daily hours of factory workers was estimated at 11.4
  • March 31, 1854
    The Treaty of Kanagawa, concluded between Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the United States Navy and the Tokugawa shogunate, forces Japan to opens ports to foreign trade and formally ends Japan's policy of isolation
  • March 31, 1880
    Wabash, Indiana, United States becomes the first town in the world completely illuminated by electrical lighting
  • March 31, 1885
    Britain establishes a protectorate over Bechuanaland, modern Botswana, after appeals by the Botswana leaders for assistance
  • March 31, 1889
    French engineer Gustave Eiffel unfurls the French tricolor from atop the Eiffel Tower, constructed of 7,000 tons of iron and steel, officially marking its completion
  • March 31, 1896
    Whitcomb Judson, of Chicago, Illinois, United States, patents a hookless fastening, i.e. zipper
  • March 31, 1903
    Richard Pearse, a New Zealand farmer and inventor, flies monoplane several hundred meters in New Zealand, some nine months before the Wright brothers flew their aircraft
  • March 31, 1907
    Romanian Army puts down Moldavian farmers' revolt, begun due to the inequity of land ownership, killing roughly 11,000
  • March 31, 1931
    An earthquake destroys Managua, Nicaragua, killing 2,000 people
  • March 31, 1999
    The Matrix, a science fiction action film depicting a dystopian future, is released
  • March 31, 2007
    Sydney, Australia, turns off its lights for one hour between 7:30PM and 8:30PM as a political statement for Global Climate Change for the first time

Wednesday, March 29, 2017

March 30

  • March 30, 1282
    Inhabitants in Palermo massacres French occupation forces in Sicily after a Frenchman harassed a woman, beginning the War of the Sicilian Vespers
  • March 30, 1533
    Henry VIII makes Thomas Cranmer archbishop of Canterbury
  • March 30, 1842
    Crawford Long, an American surgeon, utilizes ether to remove a tumor from the neck of his patient, James Venable, which becomes the first case of using anesthesia
  • March 30, 1856
    Representatives of the great powers in Europe sign Peace of Paris, which ends the Crimean War and restores the territories of Russia and Turkey to their prewar boundaries
  • March 30, 1858
    Hymen Lipman of Philadelphia patents the pencil with an eraser attached on one end
  • March 30, 1867
    United States Secretary of State William H. Seward signs an agreement with Russia's Baron Edouard de Stoeckl to purchase the territory of Alaska for US$7.2 million or $4.74 per square km
  • March 30, 1870
    The 15th Amendment to the US Constitution, guaranteeing the right to vote regardless of race, is declared in effect by Secretary of State Hamilton Fish
  • March 30, 1912
    French protectorate in Morocco is established with Treaty of Fez, which triggers riots in Fez, the capital of Morocco
  • March 30, 1945
    USSR invades Austria
  • March 30, 1950
    Phototransistor, a light-sensitive transistor, invention is announced, in Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA
  • March 30, 1972
    North Vietnamese troops enter South Vietnam starting Easter Offensive

Tuesday, March 28, 2017

March 29

  • March 29, 1461
    Edward IV secures his claim to the English throne in defeating Henry VI's Lancastrians at the battle of Towton in which about 28,000 are killed
  • March 29, 1638
    The first permanent white settlement is established in Delaware by Swedish Lutherans who build the first log cabins in America
  • March 29, 1673
    The English Parliament pass the Test Act, which excludes Roman Catholics from public functions
  • March 29, 1792
    King Gustav III King of Sweden, dies of wounds from assassination attempt, Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden succeeds
  • March 29, 1849
    Britain formally annexes Punjab, the territories of modern-day eastern Pakistan and northern western India, after Duleep Singh, the last Maharaja of the Sikh Empire, signs away all claims to the rule of the Punjab
  • March 29, 1873
    Puerto Rican government decrees the freedom of about 29,000 slaves and abolishes the slavery
  • March 29, 1879
    Some 2,000 British and Colonial troops of the 90th Light Infantry Regiment under the command of Colonel Henry Evelyn Wood repulse a major attack by 20,000 Zulu tribesmen at Kambula, Zululand, which becomes the turning point of the Anglo-Zulu War
  • March 29, 1912
    Captain Robert Scott, blizzard-bound in a tent 18 km from the South Pole, makes last entry in his diary "the end cannot be far"
  • March 29, 1959
    Some Like It Hot, an American comedy film directed by Billy Wilder and starring Marilyn Monroe, is released
  • March 29, 1961
    After a 4.5-year trial, Nelson Mandela is acquitted on treason charge
  • March 29, 1973
    The last U.S. combat troops leave South Vietnam as Hanoi frees the remaining American prisoners of war held in North Vietnam
  • March 29, 1974
    First close-up images of Mercury are taken by American robotic space probe Mariner 10
  • March 29, 1976
    One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, a drama film based on the novel by Ken Kesey, wins all five major Academy Awards, and along with five Golden Globe Awards, becomes the first to do this
  • March 29, 1989
    I. M. Pei's pyramidal entrance to the Louvre opens in Paris, France
  • March 29, 2004
    The largest expansion of North Atlantic Treaty Organization to date takes place, allowing former Eastern Bloc countries Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia into the organization
  • March 29, 2010
    Two female suicide bombers kill at least 41 people on Moscow metro trains, injuring 88 others, during the attack quickly blamed on the North Caucasus

Monday, March 27, 2017

March 28

  • March 28, 193
    Pertinax, Roman Emperor, is assassinated, so rule of Emperor Didius Julianus of Rome begins
  • March 28, 593
    Guntram, French king in Burgundy, dies at about age 67
  • March 28, 1503
    The Second Lithuanian war with Russia ends with a treaty by which Lithuania lost a fourth of its territory
  • March 28, 1776
    Mexican Captain Juan Bautista and Franciscan priest Pedro Font arrive at the tip of San Francisco
  • March 28, 1797
    The scrub board, the earliest special-purpose washing device, is patented by Nathaniel Briggs of New Hampshire
  • March 28, 1802
    Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers discovers 2 Pallas, the second asteroid known to man after Ceres
  • March 28, 1812
    By treaty of Bucharest, Russia acquires Bessarabia, the north eastern part of the original principality of Moldavia, in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War
  • March 28, 1917
    Jews are expelled from Tel Aviv and Jaffa by the Ottoman authorities in Palestine
  • March 28, 1935
    Triumph of the Will, a propaganda film directed by German screenwriter and director Leni Riefenstahl, which chronicles Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg, is premiered at the Berlin Ufa Palace Theate
  • March 28, 1949
    Fred Hoyle, an English astronomer, coins the term the "Big Bang", arguing with the Big Bang theory on BBC radio
  • March 28, 1959
    Eleven days after Tibet uprising, China dissolves Tibet's government and installs Panchen Lama while Dalai Lama is exiled from Tibet
  • March 28, 1994
    Italy's right-wing alliance under Italian media tycoon Silvio Berlusconi wins election

Sunday, March 26, 2017

March 27

  • March 27, 922
    Mansur Al-Hallaj, a Persian mystic, is beheaded at age 64 in Baghdad for pronouncing in the midst of a trance that he was the truth, i.e god
  • March 27, 1350
    Alfonso XI of Castile dies of the black death while besieging Gibraltar
  • March 27, 1668
    English King Charles II gives Bombay to East India Company
  • March 27, 1713
    Spain losses Minorca, one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea during War of the Spanish Succession
  • March 27, 1790
    Shoelaces are invented in England
  • March 27, 1802
    France, Netherlands, Spain and England signs Treaty of Amiens which ends the War of the Second Coalition and the French Revolutionary War
  • March 27, 1899
    The first international radio transmission between England and France was achieved by the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi
  • March 27, 1914
    First successful non-direct blood transfusion is performed by Albert Hustin in Brussels, Belgium
  • March 27, 1933
    Polyethylene is discovered by Reginald Gibson and Eric William Fawcett by accident in Northwich, England
  • March 27, 1964
    United Nations' troops arrive on Cyprus due to intercommunal violence between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriot
  • March 27, 1968
    Yuri Gagarin, the first human to journey into outer space, dies while on a routine training flight
  • March 27, 1972
    Addis Ababa Agreement marks end of First Sudanese Civil War
  • March 27, 1989
    Boris Yeltsin to the Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union as the delegate from Moscow district in the first free elections for the Soviet parliament go against the Communist Party
  • March 27, 1996
    Because of mad cow disease the European Commission stops the import of British beef
  • March 27, 1998
    The US Food and Drug Administration approves Viagra, also known as Sildenafil, for use as a treatment for male sexual impotence, the first pill to be approved for this condition in the United States
  • March 27, 2007
    Prime Minister of Latvia Aigars Kalvitis and Prime Minister of Russia Mikhail Fradkov finally signs a border treaty between Latvia and Russia

Saturday, March 25, 2017

March 26

  • March 26, 1027
    John XIX crowns Conrad II the Holy Roman emperor
  • March 26, 1668
    England takes control of Bombay, modern Mumbai, India
  • March 26, 1790
    US Congress passes Naturalization Act is passed and requires two-year residency only for "free white persons" to grant the national citizenship
  • March 26, 1859
    Urbain Le Verrier, a French mathematician, publishes a thorough study of Mercury's motion and proposes existence of a small planet Vulcan in an orbit between Mercury and the Sun
  • March 26, 1913
    Bulgaria captures Adrianople, ending the first Balkan War
  • March 26, 1971
    Bangladesh Liberation War between East Pakistan and Islamic Republic of Pakistan, which leads to independence of Bangladesh from Pakistan, begins with military operation of Pakistan Army aimed to curb the Bengali nationalist movement
  • March 26, 1971
    East-Pakistan is proclaimed independent state of Bangladesh as the Pakistan Army launched military operations against the people of East Pakistan
  • March 26, 1975
    The biological weapons convention enters into force
  • March 26, 1995
    The Schengen Agreement easing cross-border travel goes into effect in several European countries
  • March 26, 2000
    Vladimir Putin, the Prime Minister of Russia and former officer in the KGB, is elected President, gradually leading Russia into authoritarian regime

Friday, March 24, 2017

March 25

  • March 25, 1420
    Jan Zizka, Czech general and Hussite leader, defeats the Catholic forces at the Battle of Sudom in southern Bohemia, the first battle of the Hussite wars
  • March 25, 1537
    The Fifth Lithuanian war with Russia ends with a peace treaty wherein Gomel is granted to Lithuania, while Muscovy kept Sebezh and Velizh
  • March 25, 1655
    Christiaan Huygens, Dutch inventor and astronomer, uses a 50 power refracting telescope, designed himself, to study Rings of Saturn and discover Titan, the Saturn's largest satellite
  • March 25, 1753
    Voltaire leaves the court of Frederik II of Prussia
  • March 25, 1807
    William Wilberforce, an English politician and philanthropist, pilots a slave-trade abolition bill through the British House of Commons, making the slave trade illegal anywhere in the Empire
  • March 25, 1821
    Greek War of Independence, which made Greece the first country to break away from the Ottoman Empire, begins raising of the banner with the cross in the Monastery of Agia Lavra
  • March 25, 1843
    Thames Tunnel, the first tunnel underneath a navigable river, is opened 18 years after construction began
  • March 25, 1895
    Italian troops invade Abyssinia, starting First Italo-Ethiopian War
  • March 25, 1911
    The Triangle Shirtwaist Company factory in New York City burns down, killing 145 workers and becoming the deadliest industrial disaster in the history of the city
  • March 25, 1918
    Belarusian National Council, an assembly of different Belarusian political powers, issues a Third Constituent Charter declaring the independence of Belarus under German occupation
  • March 25, 1949
    Hanns Albin Rauter, German SS-commandant in Netherlands, is executed at age 54 according with sentence of Dutch court
  • March 25, 1957
    Treaty of Rome establishes European Economic Community, with West Germany, Italy, France, and the Benelux as the founding members, which would eventually lead to the European Union
  • March 25, 1988
    The Candle Demonstration in Bratislava, Slovakia is the first mass demonstration of the 1980s against the communist regime in Czechoslovakia
  • March 25, 2008
    Iraqi forces begin the first major operation to be planned by the Iraqi Army since the invasion of 2003 and crack down on Muqtada al Sadr's Mahdi forces in Basra and Sadr City, which results in more than 1,000 casualties in six days of heavy fighting
  • March 25, 2013
    The European Union agrees to a 10 billion economic bailout for Cyprus, equally split between the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, the European Financial Stability Facility, and the International Monetary Fund, ending Cypriot financial crisis

Thursday, March 23, 2017

March 24

  • March 24, 1241
    Mongol army enters almost abandoned Krakaw in Poland, sacking and burning the city
  • March 24, 1550
    France and England sign the Peace of Boulogne which ends the war of England with Scotland and France. France bought back Boulogne for 400,000 crowns
  • March 24, 1603
    Tudor Queen Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin, son of Mary, King James VI of Scotland, thus uniting the crowns of Scotland and England
  • March 24, 1661
    William Leddra becomes the last Quaker to be hanged in Boston when Charles II orders the executions stopped
  • March 24, 1720
    Financial crisis for banks of Paris, France, as the Mississippi Bubble bursts
  • March 24, 1721
    Johann Sebastian Bach opens his Brandenburg concertos, a collection of six instrumental works presented by Bach to Christian Ludwig, margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt
  • March 24, 1765
    Britain enacts Quartering Act, required colonists to provide temporary housing to British soldiers in public and private buildings
  • March 24, 1794
    Tadeusz Kostiuszko, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War, announces the general uprising and assumed the powers of the Commander in Chief of all of the Polish forces
  • March 24, 1802
    Richard Trevithick is granted a patent in London for his steam locomotive
  • March 24, 1882
    German scientist Robert Koch announces in Berlin that he has discovered the bacillus responsible for tuberculosis
  • March 24, 1933
    Following the Reichstag Fire Decree abolished most civil liberties, German Reichstag passes the Enabling Act giving Hitler dictatorial powers until April 1, 1937
  • March 24, 1942
    United States moves native-born of Japanese ancestry into detention centers starting internment of Japanese-American citizens in the United States
  • March 24, 1972
    Great Britain imposes direct rule over Northern Ireland
  • March 24, 1986
    United States and Libya clash in Gulf of Sidra during United States bombing of Libya
  • March 24, 1989
    Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker, strikes Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef and spils 260,000 to 750,000 barrels of crude oil, which becomes one of the most devastating human-caused environmental disasters
  • March 24, 1997
    Australian parliament overturns world's first and only euthanasia law
  • March 24, 2014
    During an emergency meeting, the United Kingdom, the United States, Italy, Germany, France, Japan, and Canada temporarily suspend Russia from the G8

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

March 23

  • March 23, 1026
    Conrad II, King of the Germans, crowns himself king of Italy
  • March 23, 1490
    First dated edition of Mishna Torah, a code of Jewish religious law, written by Jewish philosopher Maimonides, is published
  • March 23, 1592
    Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Imperial Regent of Japan, sends an army to invade Korea after Korea refused to help him invade China
  • March 23, 1791
    Etta Palm d'Aelders, a Dutch champion of woman's rights, set up a group of women's clubs called the Confederation of the Friends of Truth
  • March 23, 1801
    Paul I, Tsar of Russia, is strangled in his bedroom in Saint Petersburg ending 4 years of insane rule, and his son Alexander I Pavlovich succeeds him
  • March 23, 1808
    Napoleon's brother Joseph takes the throne of Spain
  • March 23, 1849
    Forces of Austrian Emprire under Joseph Radetzky von Radetz beat Kingdom of Sardinia in Battle of Novara, after which Charles Albert of Sardinia abdicats in favor of his son, Victor Emmanuel II
  • March 23, 1857
    Elisha Otis installs the first modern passenger elevator in the 5-story Haughwout and Co. building at 488 Broadway in New York City
  • March 23, 1875
    HMS Challenger, a steam-assisted Royal Navy Pearl-class corvette, surveys the deepest point in the Earth's oceans, the Challenger Deep
  • March 23, 1881
    Boers and Britain sign a peace accord which ends the first Boer war and recognizes South African Republic and Orange Free State
  • March 23, 1903
    Wright brothers obtain airplane patent
  • March 23, 1919
    The Italian National Fascist Party, consisting of 200 members, is established by Benito Mussolini
  • March 23, 1935
    The Philippines are granted Commonwealth status with Manuel Quezon as president, who designates a national language and introduces women's suffrage and land reform
  • March 23, 1956
    Pakistan adopted a new constitution, becoming an Islamic republic, and gets full independence
  • March 23, 1976
    International Bill of Rights, ratified by 35 nations, goes into effect
  • March 23, 1983
    Barney Clar, first artificial heart recipient, dies after 112 days at age 62
  • March 23, 1991
    Sierra Leone Civil War begins after the Revolutionary United Front intervened in Sierra Leone in an attempt to overthrow the Joseph Momoh government
  • March 23, 1996
    Lee Teng-hui is re-elected in first direct elections for president in the Republic of China on Taiwan
  • March 23, 1999
    NATO engages in 78-day bombing campaign against Serbia for occupation of Kosovo

Tuesday, March 21, 2017

March 22

  • March 22, 1622
    First Indian massacre of whites in Jamestown led by the Powhatan chief Opechancanough results in 347 slain, a quarter of the population, triggering a costly 22-year war against the English
  • March 22, 1638
    Anne Hutchinson, a religious dissident, is expelled from Massachusetts Bay Colony and moves to Rhode Island
  • March 22, 1727
    Ismail Ibn Sharif, Moroccan ruler which have fathered 888 children through a harem of 500 women, dies
  • March 22, 1733
    Joseph Priestly, an English theologian, invents carbonated water
  • March 22, 1765
    The British government passes the Stamp Act, imposing a direct tax on all materials printed for commercial and legal use in the American colonies to help pay for troops stationed in North America
  • March 22, 1775
    British statesman Edmund Burke presents his 13 articles to the House of Commons, urging the government to adopt a policy of reconciliation with America
  • March 22, 1802
    After a 20-day siege Dessalines and his 1,300 men are forced to abandon strategically important fort and go into the Cahos Mountains through the enemy lines being largely intact
  • March 22, 1894
    Hockey's first Stanley Cup championship game is played, the home team Montreal Amateur Athletic Association defeated the Ottawa Capitals, 3-1
  • March 22, 1914
    World's first scheduled airline, Saint Petersburg - Tampa Airboat Line, begins
  • March 22, 1957
    Republic of India adopts Saka calendar along with Gregorian
  • March 22, 1995
    Cosmonaut Valeri Polyakov returns to Earth after setting a record for 438 days in outer space
  • March 22, 2006
    ETA, an armed Basque nationalist and separatist organization, declares a permanent ceasefire in their campaign for Basque independence from Spain

Monday, March 20, 2017

March 21

  • March 21, 1421
    A Franco-Scots army beat British at the Battle of Bauge
  • March 21, 1556
    Thomas Cranmer, an archbishop of Canterbury, is burned at stake at age 66
  • March 21, 1617
    Pocahontas dies of either small pox or pneumonia during preparation to sail back to Virginia
  • March 21, 1668
    Jean de La Fontaine, one of the most widely read French poets, publishes his Fables Choisies, a collection of 124 fables dividing into six books
  • March 21, 1697
    Tsar Peter the Great begins a tour through West Europe
  • March 21, 1801
    British expeditionary corps under Sir Ralph Abercrombie defeat the French army under General Menou in the Battle of Alexandria during Anglo-Ottoman land offensive
  • March 21, 1804
    The French civil code, later called the Napoleonic Code, is adopted and which forbids privileges based on birth and allows freedom of religion
  • March 21, 1858
    British forces in India lift the siege of Lucknow during the Indian Rebellion
  • March 21, 1865
    The Battle of Bentonville, North Carolina, ends, marking the last Confederate attempt to stop Union General William Sherman
  • March 21, 1871
    Journalist Henry M. Stanley began his famous expedition to Africa to locate the missing Scottish missionary David Livingstone
  • March 21, 1871
    Otto von Bismarck becomes the 1st Chancellor of the German Empire
  • March 21, 1918
    German Army begins the Great March Offensive and drives the Allied army back 40 kilometers before losing momentum
  • March 21, 1921
    James "Big Jim" Colosimo, United States gangster and boss of an Italian American crime syndicate, is murdered by Al Capone
  • March 21, 1935
    Persia is officially renamed Iran
  • March 21, 1960
    Police kill 72 in South Africa and outlaws African National Congress during Sharpeville massacre
  • March 21, 1980
    U.S. President Jimmy Carter announces that the United States will boycott the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan
  • March 21, 1990
    After 75 years of South African rule, Namibia becomes independent, with Sam Nujoma as the first president
  • March 21, 1991
    United Nations Security Council panel decides to lift the food embargo on Iraq
  • March 21, 1999
    Bertrand Piccard and Brian Jones become the first to circumnavigate the Earth in a hot air balloon
  • March 21, 2014
    Russia formally annexes Crimea after President Vladimir Putin signed a bill finalizing the annexation process

Sunday, March 19, 2017

March 20

  • March 20, 1413
    Henry IV, King of England, dies in the house of the Abbot of Westminster and is succeeded by Henry V
  • March 20, 1602
    The Dutch East India Company, a powerful company, possessing quasi-governmental powers, is chartered by the States-General of the Netherlands to carry out trade and colonial activities in Asia
  • March 20, 1727
    Sir Isaac Newton, physicist, mathematician and astronomer, dies in London
  • March 20, 1739
    In India, Nader Shah of Persia defeats the Mughals at the Battle of Delhi, then occupies and sacks Delhi taking possession of the Peacock Throne, a famous jeweled throne of the Mughal emperors
  • March 20, 1760
    Great Fire of Boston destroys 349 buildings
  • March 20, 1799
    Napoleon Bonaparte begins the siege of Acre defended by Turks, which becomes the turning point of Napoleon's invasion of Egypt and Syria
  • March 20, 1815
    Napoleon Bonaparte with his veterans enters Paris after escape from imprisonment on the island of Elba, beginning his Hundred Days rule
  • March 20, 1848
    King Ludwig I of Bavaria abdicates in favour of his eldest son Maximilian, with beginning of revolutions in the German states
  • March 20, 1852
    Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, a novel based on the theme that slavery is incompatible with Christianity, is first published in book form after being serialized
  • March 20, 1854
    The Republican Party is founded when former members of the Whig political party met to establish a new political party that would oppose the spread of slavery into the western territories
  • March 20, 1890
    Young German emperor Wilhelm II fires republic chancellor Otto Von Bismarck
  • March 20, 1964
    European Space Research Organization is established by 10 European nations for scientific research in space
  • March 20, 1995
    Members of the Aum Shinrikyo religious cult release sarin gas on five separate railway trains in Tokyo, killing 12 and injuring 4700

Saturday, March 18, 2017

March 19

  • March 19, 1279
    Kublai Khan completes the Mongol conquest of China and ends Song Dynasty after victory at the Battle of Yamen
  • March 19, 1563
    The Edict of Amboise grants limited rights for Huguenots and ends the First War of Religion in France
  • March 19, 1628
    Massachusetts Bay Colony colony is founded by English Puritan
  • March 19, 1661
    English occupy St. Andrew Island, known as Kunta Kinteh Island, and other Courlander possessions in Gambia
  • March 19, 1812
    Spanish Cortes passes a liberal constitution under a hereditary monarch, establishing the principles of universal male suffrage, national sovereignty, constitutional monarchy and freedom of the press
  • March 19, 1856
    The Electoral Act of the Colony of Victoria, Australia, enacts the first law requiring parliamentary election by secret ballot vote
  • March 19, 1882
    Construction of Sagrada Familia, a large Roman Catholic church in Barcelona, Spain, has commenced, initially designed by architect Francisco de Paula del Villar and later radically redesigned by Catalan architect Antoni Gaudi
  • March 19, 1920
    United States Senate rejects Treaty of Versailles for second time refusing to ratify League of Nations' covenant and maintaining isolation policy
  • March 19, 1944
    German troops enter Budapest, Hungary
  • March 19, 1967
    French Somaliland, or Djibouti, votes to continue association with France
  • March 19, 1978
    50,000 demonstrate in Amsterdam against neutron bomb
  • March 19, 2003
    The first American cruise missiles and stealth bombers strike targets in Baghdad beginning Iraq War following United States President George Bush's 48-hour mandate for President Saddam Hussein and his sons to exit from Iraq
  • March 19, 2011
    In light of continuing attacks on Libyan rebels by forces in support of leader Muammar Gaddafi, military intervention authorized under United Nations Security Council resolution 1973 begins as French fighter jets make reconnaissance flights over Libya

Friday, March 17, 2017

March 18

  • March 18, 235
    Alexander Severus, Syrian emperor of Rome, is murdered by his troops. Maximinus Thrax becomes 27th Emperor of the Roman Empire
  • March 18, 1167
    Battle of al-Babein between Kingdom of Jerusalem and Syrians for control of Egypt ends with draw
  • March 18, 1314
    Jacques de Molay, the 23rd and last Grand Master of the Knights Templar, is burned at the stake along with his aides by order of King Philip IV of France, who was deeply in debt to the order
  • March 18, 1442
    Forces of Kingdom of Hungary defeat the Ottoman Turks in Battle of Hermannstadt
  • March 18, 1532
    English parliament bans payments by English church to Rome
  • March 18, 1584
    Ivan IV the Terrible, Russian tsar, dies at age 53 and is succeeded by his weak-minded son, Fyodor I with duties handed over to his wife's brother and trusted minister Boris Godunov
  • March 18, 1793
    Austria army beats France at Battle of Neerwinden
  • March 18, 1871
    Paris Commune, a revolutionary and socialist government in Paris, is founded
  • March 18, 1899
    Phoebe, a moon of Saturn, is discovered by American astronomer William Henry Pickering
  • March 18, 1902
    Enrico Caruso, an Italian operatic tenor, becomes first well-known performer to make a gramophone record
  • March 18, 1913
    George I, king of Greece, is assassinated by socialist Alexandros Schinas at age 67
  • March 18, 1915
    Turkey's Canakkale Sea Victory against allied powers occurs during Naval operations in the Dardanelles Campaign
  • March 18, 1920
    Greece adopts the Gregorian calendar
  • March 18, 1921
    Polish-Soviet War ends with Peace of Riga, by witch the disputed territories in Belarus and Ukraine are partitioned between Russia and Poland, and Russia surrender works of art and other Polish national treasures acquired from Polish territories after 1772
  • March 18, 1925
    60-kmps Tri-State Tornado, the deadliest tornado in U.S. history, speed through Missouri, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee killing 689
  • March 18, 1948
    France, Great Britain, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg sign Treaty of Brussels, contains a mutual defence clause and provides a basis to foundation the Western European Union
  • March 18, 1959
    President Dwight D Eisenhower signs Hawaii Admission Act, which admits the Hawaii into the United States as the 50th state
  • March 18, 1965
    First human space walks occurs, when Cosmonaut Alexey Leonov, leaves his spacecraft Voskhod 2 for 12 minutes
  • March 18, 1970
    Cambodian Prince Norodom Sihanouk flees after military coup under General Lon Nol during Cambodian Civil War
  • March 18, 1974
    Most Arab oil-producing nations end embargo against United States
  • March 18, 1978
    Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Prime Minister of Pakistan, is sentenced to death by hanging for ordering the assassination of a political opponent
  • March 18, 1980
    Fifty people are killed at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia, when a Vostok-2M rocket explodes on its launch pad during a fueling operation
  • March 18, 2000
    Chen Shui-bian, one of the founders of Democratic Progressive Party, is elected President of the Taiwan ending Kuomintang rule for the first time

Thursday, March 16, 2017

March 17

  • March 17, 180
    Emperor of Rome Marcus Aurelius dies, leaving the throne to Commodus
  • March 17, 1672
    England declares war on Netherlands
  • March 17, 1757
    Prince Mangkunegara I of Mataram surrenders to Hamengkubuwono I in Java
  • March 17, 1776
    British forces evacuate Boston to Halifax, Nova Scotia during Revolutionary War
  • March 17, 1800
    English warship Queen Charlotte catch fire and 673 officers and men die
  • March 17, 1858
    The Fenian Brotherhood, a brigade of the Irish Republican Brotherhood, a secret revolutionary group, is founded in Dublin by James Stephens
  • March 17, 1861
    The first Italian Parliament declare independence of Italy and proclaim Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia the first King of Italy
  • March 17, 1884
    John Joseph Montgomery makes first glider flight, in Otay, California, United States
  • March 17, 1921
    Sailors revolt against the Bolshevik government in Kronstadt is suppressed with thousands casualties by Leon Trotsky, the leader of the Red Army
  • March 17, 1950
    Element 98, Californium, is announced
  • March 17, 1963
    Eruptions of Mount Agung Bali kills 1,500 Balinese
  • March 17, 1991
    USSR holds a referendum to determine if they should stay together; 9 of 15 Soviet representatives officially approve new union treaty
  • March 17, 2004
    Pogrom-like violence, organized by crowds of Albanians breaks out over two days in Kosovo, results in nineteen killed, 139 Serbian homes burned, schools and businesses vandalized, and over 30 Orthodox monasteries and churches destroyed

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

March 16

  • Roman Emperor Tiberius dies on a trip to the Italian mainland from his home on Capri, and is succeeded by Caligula
  • March 16, 1190
    The crusaders begin the massacre of Jews in York, England in which at least 150 Jews died
  • March 16, 1527
    The Emperor Babur defeats the Rajputs at the Battle of Khanwa, removing the main Hindu rivals in Northern India
  • March 16, 1731
    Treaty of Vienna between Kingdom of Great Britain and the Habsburg monarchy marks the collapse of the Anglo-French Alliance and the beginning of the Anglo-Austrian Alliance
  • March 16, 1781
    In Colombia the Comunero Revolt among artisans and peasants in Socorro after imposition of new taxes by the viceroy stimulated, becomes the most serious revolt against Spanish authority before the war for independence
  • March 16, 1792
    King Gustav III of Sweden is shot and mortally wounded during a masquerade party at an opera by a former member of his regiment
  • March 16, 1900
    English archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans finds old city of Knossus
  • March 16, 1922
    Sultan Fuad I is crowned king of Egypt after England recognizes Egypt
  • March 16, 1926
    Robert Goddard, an American physicist and inventor, launches the first liquid fuel rocket, which goes 56 meter
  • March 16, 1939
    Hungary annexes republic of Carpatho-Ukraine, an autonomous region within Czechoslovakia
  • March 16, 1968
    Charlie Company of United States troops kills over 500 civilians in four hamlets in Son My district, Vietnam, in what became known as the My Lai massacre
  • March 16, 1978
    Amoco Cadiz, a supertanker under the Liberian flag, sinks, resulting in the largest oil spill of its kind in history to that date
  • March 16, 1983
    Stravinsky Fountain, a fountain ornamented with sixteen works of sculpture representing the works of composer Igor Stravinsky, is finished by sculptors Jean Tinguely and Niki de Saint Phalle
  • March 16, 1988
    The Halabja poison gas attack is carried out by Iraqi government forces
  • March 16, 2010
    The Kasubi Tombs, Uganda's only cultural World Heritage Site, are destroyed by fire