Wednesday, April 12, 2017

April 13

  • April 13, 989
    Byzantine emperor Basil II beats Bardas Phokas the Younger, a Byzantine general who took a conspicuous part in three revolts for and against the ruling Macedonian dynasty
  • April 13, 1111
    In Rome, Pope Paschalis II crowns Heinrich V Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
  • April 13, 1517
    Tuman bay II, the last Mamluk sultan of Egypt, is hanged as Osman's army occupies Cairo
  • April 13, 1598
    King Henry IV of France endorses the Edict of Nantes, which ends the religion Wars in France and grant political rights to French Huguenots
  • April 13, 1640
    English Short Parliament is formed to obtain money to finance military struggle with Scotland in the Bishops' Wars
  • April 13, 1759
    French beat European Allies in Battle of Bergen
  • April 13, 1775
    Lord North extends the New England Restraining Act, which forbids trade with any country other than Britain and Ireland, to South Carolina, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland
  • April 13, 1861
    After 34 hours of bombardment Federal garrison at Fort Sumter surrenders to Confederate forces
  • April 13, 1868
    Tewodros II, Emperor of Ethiopia, commits suicide with a pistol presented him by Queen Victoria at Magdala as the British troops storm the citadel
  • April 13, 1869
    George Westinghouse, an American engineer, patents the railroad air brake, which enables the engineer to brake a train from the locomotive, making high-speed travel safe
  • April 13, 1912
    The British Royal Flying Corps, later Royal Air Force, is organized in Great Britain with naval and military wings and a central flying school
  • April 13, 1919
    British General Reginald Dyer orders 50 riflemen to fire on assembly of 10,000 protesting Indian nationalists at Jalianwala Bagh in City of Amritsar in Pubjab, northwest India, without warning, continued firing for 10 minutes, resulting in 379 killed and 1200+ wounded
  • April 13, 1924
    The monarchy is abolished via Greek plebiscite for a republic follows the catastrophic outcome of the Asia Minor Campaign
  • April 13, 1943
    Warsaw ghetto uprising begins in Poland
  • April 13, 1957
    12 Angry Men, a drama film adapted from a teleplay of the same name by Reginald Rose, is released
  • April 13, 1975
    Phalangists, members of Christian Kataeb Party, kills 27 Palestinians traveling in Ain el-Rummaneh, thus begin Lebanese Civil War
  • April 13, 1987
    Portugal and the People's Republic of China sign an agreement in which Macau would be returned to China in 1999
  • April 13, 1990
    The Soviet Union apologizes for the Katyn Massacre of Polish officers during World War II
  • April 13, 2015
    A vessel with up to 550 migrants on board sinks off the Libyan coast, marking start of European migrant crisis, the rising number of refugees and migrants coming to the European Union

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